The October Crisis Essay Research Paper THE
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The October Crisis Essay, Research Paper
THE OCTOBER CRISIS
The narrative of the FLQ ( Front de Liberation du Quebec ) and the October Crisis has taught us non to take the first marks of terrorist act lightly. The federal authorities and the authorities of Quebec acted suitably given the state of affairs presented by the FLQ? s actions. This essay will concentrate on three countries of importance in protecting our state? s safety during the October Crisis of 1970: the protection of high profile politicians that were in danger from the FLQ, the arrangement of military officers in Quebec City, Montreal, and Ottawa ; and the federal authorities? s execution of the War Measures Act.
The first of import action by the authorities was the protection of high profile politicians, who had a direct and indirect engagement with the FLQ? s actions. The FLQ had kidnapped two politicians, British diplomat, James Cross, and Quebec Minister of Labour, Pierre Laporte before any action was taken.1 These snatchs forced the authorities into action. The action was to convey the Canadian Military into Quebec, and to set Canada under the War Measures Act, which suspended the civil autonomies of all Canadians. These standards will be outlined in the undermentioned paragraphs. These two determinations were really of import in the protection of politicians every bit good as civilian Canadians. The authorities was non moving out of fright. It was moving to forestall fright from distributing. It was moving to keep the regulation of jurisprudence because without it freedom is impossible. It was moving to protect Canada. But the protection was non perfect. The War Measures Act, brought in to protect Canadians, was, harmonizing to the FLQ the ground they murdered Pierre Laporte. The slaying nevertheless, increased the degree of protection given to politicians. The first illustration of this increased protection was at Laporte? s funeral. All traffic had been sealed off for four-blocks around the church where the funeral was to take topographic point. When Robert Bourassa, the Premier of Quebec arrived, guards escorted him in, with their guns drawn ; Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau was escorted in a similar manner, nevertheless no guns were seeable. Crisp Taws from the Canadian Armed Forces in place on top of all tall office edifices within a five-block radius of the Notre Dame Church in Montreal. Police transporting rifles with bayonets patrolled the country around the church. Soldiers with machine guns were at every window of the church, and at the church? s chief towers. A state where the Prime Minister could usually walk unprotected as he pleased, had been changed by terrorists into a topographic point where the Prime Minister was being guarded at all times. Another clip of great security was when James Cross was to eventually be released, on December 2, 1970, 59 yearss after he was captured. Approaching his release, constabulary had moved into all houses environing the triplex were Cross was being held. They could hear everything that was traveling on interior. The Royal Canadian Mounted Police ( RCMP ) were so close about its actions that the Montreal Police did non even cognize what the RCMP was making. In fact the screen was about blown when a neighbor had reported unusual things go oning in a house, a house that the RCMP occupied. On the forenoon that James Cross was to be released, 100s of constabulary and soldiers had moved around the country. Full blocks had been sealed from traffic. Snipers and riflemen were everyplace ; the FLQ could non get away if they had tried. Because of all this protection and safeguards, James Cross was returned safely.2 In add-on to these specific security steps during the October Crisis, there were general protection processs. The RCMP secured federal authorities edifices in Ottawa, to supply armed bodyguard to federal authorities functionaries, and to supply a speedy reaction force. A particular liaison staff was established at Canadian Forces Headquarters, including members of the RCMP and Ottawa constabularies, to guarantee coordination and application of resources. The protection provided to politicians was something unprecedented in Canada, but however there were no mistakes made in protecting these persons.
The 2nd of import engagement by the authorities, was the arrangement of military officers to protect citizens in Quebec City, Montreal, and Ottawa. When the Quebec Minister of Labour, Pierre Laporte was kidnapped, Quebec Premier, Robert Bourassa called Prime Minister, Pierre Trudeau and asked him to direct in the ground forces, and to believe about raising the War Measures Act. At this clip Trudeau agreed that the ground forces should be sent in. The Quebec authorities made the proclamation on October 13, 1970 that the Armed Forces would be brought in, the authorities indicated that soldiers from the Armed Forces would be summoned into Quebec City and Montreal, for protection. Within half an hr of Bourassa? s proclamation a convoy of 200 military vehicles was going towards Montreal. In add-on to the vehicles, military air conveyance vehicles were in the air transporting more work forces, arms, and supplies to Montreal.3 Not long after the armed forces was brought in there was broad spread choler from many Canadians who were opposed to this sort of action, these people, in most portion, were afraid of the Military presence on the streets of their town. In response to the public call, Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau made this statement during a televised interview:
& # 8220 ; Yes, good there are a batch of shed blooding Black Marias around who merely wear? Ts like to see people
with helmets and guns. All I can state is, travel on and shed blood, but it is more of import to
maintain jurisprudence and order in the society than to be worried about weak-kneed people who
Don? T like the expressions of & # 8230 ; & # 8221 ; He further added: & # 8220 ; I think the society must take every agency
at its disposal to support itself against the outgrowth of a parallel power which defies
the elective power in this state and I think that this goes to any distance & # 8221 ; .. When
Trudeau was challenged to province merely how far he would travel, he rebelliously stated: & # 8220 ; Well,
merely watch me & # 8221 ; .4
Prime Minister Trudeau and the authorities did non like the determination either, but the action was necessary to protect Canada? s democracy. By the eventide of October 13, more Thursday
an 1000 Canadian military officers were stationed in Montreal. Along with the proclamation that the armed forces was to be brought in, the Quebec authorities invoked the Police Act. The Police Act, was an exigency jurisprudence that placed all of Quebec? s constabulary and ground forces forces under the order of the manager of the Quebec Provincial Police ( QPP ) . This left the state of 13 000 work forces ( 12 000 constabulary officers, and 1 000 military soldiers ) .5 In add-on to the soldiers in Quebec City, and Montreal, military forces had been deployed in Ottawa, to protect the states capital, which many idea could be in danger of onslaughts by the FLQ. All of this armed presence left the metropoliss with a different feeling, a feeling of war, within the state, something that had ne’er been felt before. However, the presence was necessary, to protect many Canadians, from the actions of a few Canadians who thought they could take over the state. The armed forces was at that place because the FLQ was going progressively unsafe ; with the snatch of British diplomat, James Cross, and the snatch of Quebec Minister of Labour, Pierre Laporte, the authorities felt that to no 1 could be safe without the protection of the armed forces. The function of the military officers would increase well with the call from Prime Minister Trudeau that Canada would now be under control of the War Measures Act.6 The power that the officers received under the War Measures Act was huge. Anyone that was seen as a menace could be arrested and detained, without ground for a period of clip. The military and constabularies were seting many people in gaol, to protect Canada. The soldiers would stay in Quebec until January 4, 1971 which was decided on December 23, 1970.7 Prime Minister Trudeau decided this, after measuring the state of affairs at that clip, it was deemed that the FLQ was no longer a threat.8 The determination to convey the military into Quebec City, Montreal, and Ottawa was one of the most of import determinations made to protect Canadians during the October Crisis of 1970.
The 3rd and concluding piece of information of importance was the federal Broad authorities? s execution of soldierly jurisprudence as the War Measures Act, during the October Crisis of 1970. The determination by Prime Minister to set soldierly jurisprudence in topographic point during this clip was one of the most of import determinations of all time made to protect the people of Canada? s safety. The War Measures Act, was created in 1914 and read as follows:
? In the event of war, invasion, or rebellion, existent or apprehended, the Governor in
Council can deploy military forces, impose censoring, apprehension and detain suspected
revolutionists and foreigners, prohibition insurgent organisations, expropriate belongings, and exercise
authorities control over all facets of transit and trade. ? 9
The diction of the War Measures Act was flexible plenty to let the Prime Minister to authorise such Acts of the Apostless that were deemed necessary or advisable for the security, defense mechanism, peace, order, and public assistance of Canada. On October 15, 1970 the War Measures Act was issued and the Front de Liberation du Quebec was declared an improper association.10 Any individual who was a member of the FLQ, or who acted or supported the FLQ in some manner became apt to a jail term that could non transcend five old ages. Any individual arrested for such a intent could be held without bond for up to ninety yearss. In the absence of grounds that they where non a member, cogent evidence that a individual was a member of the FLQ was shown by go toing a meeting of the FLQ, talking publically as an advocator of the FLQ, or to pass on statements on behalf of the FLQ. However the War Measures Act did hold one serious recoil, on October 18, 1970, merely three yearss after the proclamation that the War Measures Act was in topographic point, Pierre Laporte who had been kidnapped by the FLQ was murdered. The FLQ said he was killed due to the authorities? s determination to raise the War Measures Act. However, the slaying was non something the authorities could hold foreseen.11 The War Measures Act gave sweeping powers to the authorities. It besides suspended the operation of the Canadian Bill of Rights. Prime Minister Trudeau assured the populace that the authorities was really loath to seek such powers, and that it did so merely when it became clear that the state of affairs could non be controlled unless aid was made available instantly. The War Measures Act was the extraordinary aid necessary.12 The constabulary and military were given certain powers necessary for the sensing and riddance of conspirative FLQ members. The FLQ advocated the usage of force and so rank of the FLQ was declared illegal. The power that the officers were given included: the right to seek and collar without warrant, to confine suspected members without it being necessary to put specific charges right off, and to confine these people without bail.13 They were strong powers and where unsavory, but however really necessary, to allow the constabulary and soldiers to cover with people who advocated the FLQ overthrow of Canada? s democratic system. Many Canadians, one time once more, did non back up the authorities? s actions that were so undemocratic.14 Many people did non cognize how critical the state of affairs with the FLQ truly was, the crisis was non being taken earnestly plenty by the populace. The populace did non cognize how much danger the FLQ had put them in. There were menaces of bombing to big concern edifices, and menaces of more snatchs, the War Measures Act, which today has evolved into the Emergencies Act, was necessary to protect the democracy in Canada, that the FLQ was seeking to take away.
There were three really of import actions performed by both the federal authorities and the authorities of Quebec during the October Crisis of 1970: the protection of high profile politicians involved with the FLQ? s actions, the determination to convey the military into Quebec City, Montreal and Ottawa, and the federal authoritiess determination to set soldierly jurisprudence into action by manner of the War Measures Act. The narrative of the FLQ and the October Crisis of 1970 has taught us non to take the first marks of terrorist act lightly, but to take them earnestly, and act in a manor that will protect Canada? s unity, and deter future Acts of the Apostless of such mindless force.