The Peculiar Institution of Slavery
Slavery in America Northern Colonies Southern Colonies Slave Labor The African Slave Trade -10 to 11 million africans kidnaped and brought to usa most of those slaves went to south and latin america those who came to america were a minority europeans don’t create slavery and don’t invent the slave slave they tapped into existing slave trading in africa – it already was apart of the african culture – myth the white people go and bring them back to own a human being you need to dehumanize them lavery creates racism not the other way around – this racism emerges in this myth that africa was backward and it was the dark continent. that africans were lesser civilized beings. estimated on the eve that euro tapped into slavery that africa had as big of a population as eruope and it was diversified – middle class, rich, poor, etc agriculture in africa was as sophisitcated as it was in paris, rome, etc many socities in africa had their own legal system and codified laws The Kingdom of Mali Timbuktu and islamic universities – huge – studied math and astronomy – education and scientific progress was apart of africa
Europe and the Slave Trade they got through the slave trade through the portuguese Price Henry went through the african waterways and this was when theyt apped into the slave trade portugese got slaves in return for equal valued goods – iron, guns, brass pots, etc – equitable business trade europeans alter slavery expands it scope and the number of slaves bc of new crops – sugar in Caribbean, rice, etc. the capture and transport of slaves from the west cost of africa 3 stages of getting them to the plantations First Leg frican agent would have bought stolen bartered for african slaves and they would have been marched to the coast leg is from the inland to coast this is the beginning of brutilization of slaves slaves march in a single line with chain around their neck waste legs walking upward of 500 miles this is where first slave rebellions began – they couldn’t run away so the salve rebellion came in the form of suicide. they’re being ripped from their families and villages and they don’t know what’s going to happen – so there were two ways the slaves found to commit suicide 1. hey had their hands free, the soil turned into clay after rain, they would scoop up some of the clay and would choke to death 2. through rocks at hives of killer bees and allow themselves to be stung to death those who survive get to the coast and they’re sold to a european ship captain they’re branded with the companies logo on the back and inside of the cheek then put into the canoes to the harbor to the big slave ships another form of suicide – they would tip the canoes and drown because they didn’t know how to swim
Second Leg – middle passage ships were cargo ships – not passenger ships – squished together because you want as many “product” to get to the new world to sell delicate situation for captain – they didn’t want to waste food on them but they couldn’t die of starvation slave owners allowed to happen – allowed the slaves to act out their tribal dances (this is how you get the transfer of african cultural music to the united states) despite what the ship owners did 0-15% didn’t make it – through starvation and rebellion attempted mutinies – wanted to take the ship back to africa – when they failed the punishments were brutal – you don’t kill a slave because you’re killing your economic property – instead you would cut out a tounge or brand them again in really sensitive areas – won’t kill because doesn’t make economic sense
Third Leg in the ports – auctions if a family was somehow able to survive first two legs, this is where they would be auctioned off and split up – the slaves were poked and prauded to see their physical stance and their cavities were checked for disease – compaired to cattle acution Slavery in America irst africans came to america in 1619 and were brought over by the dutch and sold to americans those first africans were indentured servants and not slaves – 7 year contract – when it was up they got their own land and materials – slavery takes a long time to develop by the 1660’s we have black slave labour in america – not because they’re african but because they need a labour force The Virgina Codes further the path to racism 1660s – if you’re born under a slave mom the child is a slave for life
Norther Colonies there were slaves here but very small in number white families owned maybe 1 or 2 slaves and they lived in the house with them.
They sat down and ate meals together – many were allowed to marry and have children – different institution – part of the reason it’s different because of the Quakers Quakers all about social equality and the first abolitionists – racism is against moral code and gods plan bigger reason – slaves were not as necessary and an economic drain economically not needed – smaller farms – type of agriculture is different and you don’t need the labour force – industrialization and there are mechinized ways to pick apples or milk a cow – immigration, to the north the poor immigrates go and many are catholic. or many norther colonies africans were higher on the scale from catholics. many of the few african slaves had rights and some could own property and shops ( cottage industries ) some were able to have children and marry so different that by the 1800’s there were no slaves (mason-dixon line) Southern Colonies slavery defines the south with their economy, politics, race structure – huge implication through southern society
Free Black Persons former slaves that are now free and exists in an odd world most had to carry identification papers saying they’re a free black person how achieved freedom – bought – freed – military participation work out a deal with master to buy freedom – money could be made by having your own side business other salves were freed by masters – often seen in will lave owners in western regions of south that were facing indian wars and white masters would make deals with slaves to fight with them against natives and they would grant freedom some of these free black people were slave owners and gave two reasons to whyt hey onwed slaves as a black person themselves they would be more humane than the white slave owner would – this was usually bunk and never the case simple economics – black slave owners wanted to be rich and the cheapest source of labour were slaves (one black owner in louisiana had 91 slaves)