The Periodic Table Essay Research Paper Classification
The Periodic Table Essay, Research Paper
Categorization of Elementss: The Periodic Table
Arranging The Elementss:
The Russian chemist Dmitri Mendeleev uncovered grounds that consisted of a immense aggregation of facts
about the 63 elements that had been discovered by the mid-1800 & # 8217 ; s. His hints had to make with the physical and
chemical belongingss of these elements. Mendeleev was convinced that he could set up the elements so that those
with similar belongingss were grouped together. Mendeleev made a card for each component including the atomic mass,
denseness, colour, and runing point. He besides included the component & # 8217 ; s valency, adhering power. Mendeleev, looking for
forms, arranged the card so that the atomic mass additions. If he started with Li, the following would be Be.
Then would come B, C, N, O, and flourine. With the cards arranged in this order Mendeleev
noticed that the form of valencies was: 1 2 3 4 3 2 1. Seven elements in a row, and a form of valencies reiterating
themselves. As he arranged all 63 cards in this mode in making so he besides saw something even more singular.
When the elements were arranged in this manner, they fell into columns, one under the other. All the elements in one
column had the same valency and showed similar physical and chemical belongingss. Mendeleev designed a periodic
tabular array in wich the elements were arranged in order of increasing atomic mass. The periodic jurisprudence provinces that the physicaland chemical belongingss of the elements are periodic maps of their atomic Numberss.
The periodic tabular array of the elements is one of the most of import tools of a scientist, particularly a chemist.
The periodic tabular array is a categorization system, a manner of forming huge sums of information in a logical, useable,
meaningful manner. The columns the elements are placed in are called groups or households. Elementss within the group
hold similar but non indistinguishable belongingss. For illustration, Li ( Li ) , Na ( Na ) , K ( K ) , and other
members of household 1 are all soft, white, glistening metals. They are all extremely reactive elements, wich agencies
they readily combine with other elements to organize compounds. In each person square it contains the
atomic mass, atomic figure, chemical symbol, and name/abbr.
There are now 109 elements in the periodic tabular array. Most of the elements are metals. Chemical belongingss in metals are such things as lecherousness and sheen. Most metals besides allow heat and electricity to travel through them easy. Therefor metals are good music directors of heat and electricity. In general metals have high denseness. This means they are heavy for their size. There are two other physical belongingss that are common to many metals. Most metals
are malleable, wich means they can be drawn out into thin wires. And most metals are ductile, wich agencies
they can be hammered into thin sheets. The chemical belongingss of metals are non as easy observed as
the physical belongingss. The chemical belongingss of any element depend of the negatron agreement in
the atoms of the component. An atom of a metal can hold 1, 2, 3, or 4 negatrons in its outermost energy degree.
The negatrons in a metals outermost energy degree are held together decrepit. So metals are elements that tend
to lose their outermost energy degrees negatrons when they combine chemically. Because they tend to lose
negatrons, most metals will respond chemically with H2O or O in the ambiance. This normally consequences
in corrosion. Corrosion is the gradual have oning off of a metal due to a chemical reaction in which the metal
component is changed into a metallic compound. Tarnishing is a nother illustration of corrosion. This consequences when
Ag reacts with sulfer in the air or in certain nutrients.
Properties of nonmetals have no lustre and are dull in visual aspect. Nonmetals do non carry on heat
and electricity really good. Nonmetals are brickle and break easy. They can non be drawn out into wire or
hammered into thin sheets. Nonmetals are neither malleable nor ductile. Nonmetals normally have lower thaw
points and densenesss than that of metals. Nonmetals are non easy to acknowledge as a group as metals are.
Atoms of most nonmetals are 5, 6, 7, or 8 negatrons in the outermost energy degree. Atoms with 5, 6,
or 7 negatrons gain 3, 2, or 1 negatron, severally when they combine chemically. Nonmetals are elements
that tend to derive negatrons. When you look at the spliting line between metals and nonmetal you see the
metalloids. Metalloid means metallike. All metalloids are solid that can be glistening or dull. They conduct heat
and electricity better than nonmetals but non every bit good as metals. Metalloids are malleable and ductile. The metalloids include B, Si, Ge, arsenic, Sb, Te, Po, and At.
Chemical households are elements that have similar belongingss because they have the same figure
of valency negatrons. The elements in household one are called the base metals, with the exclusion of H.
The alkali metals are soft, siver-white, glistening metals. They are so soft they can be cut with a knife. Alkali
metals are good music directors of heat and electricity. The reaction is violent when the base metals combine with
H2O and O. Family two consists of the alkali-earth metals. These metals are ne’er found in nature as
uncombined metals. Alternatively they exist bonded with other metals as compounds. Another sort of metal that
is difficult to label into a group or household is the passage metals. Passage metals have belongingss similar to other
metals. Passage metals are good music directors of electicity every bit good. An interesting passage metal is quicksilver.
Murcuy is a liquid metal at temperatures above -38 grades celcius. Most passage metals have 1 or 2 valency
negatrons. When they combine with of atoms, they lose either 1 or both of their valency negatrons. The compounds
of passage meteals are normally brilliantly colored and are frequently used to colourise pigment.
ALKALI METALS ALKALINE-EARTH METALS TRANSITION METALS
Lithium ( Li ) Beryllium ( Be ) Iron ( Fe ) Zinc ( Zn )
Sodium ( Na ) Magnesium ( Mg ) Cobalt ( Co ) Cadmium ( Cd )
Potassium ( K ) Calcium ( Ca ) Nickel ( Ni ) Mercury ( Hg )
Rubidium ( Rb ) Strontium ( Sr ) Copper ( Cu )
Cesium ( Cs ) Barium ( Ba ) Silver ( Ag )
Francium ( Fr ) Radium ( Ra ) Gold ( Au )
To the right of the passage elements are six households, five of them contain some metalloids. Family
13 is the B household. Atoms of this household normally have three valency negatrons. Family 14, the
C household, normally have four valency negatrons. The nitrogen household, household 15, is named after an component
that makes up 78 % of the air around you: N. The atoms of elements in this household have 5 valency elctrons
in their outermost energy degree. These atoms tend to portion negatrons when they bond with other atoms. The elements
that make up household 16 are called the O household. Atoms of these elements have six valency negatrons. Most
elements in this household portion negatrons when organizing compounds. Family 17 is the halogen household. The elements of this household hold seven valency negatrons. Atoms of these elements merely need to derive one negatron to make full
their outermost energy degree. The last household, the baronial gases, are usually unreactive. Under particular conditions, certain baronial gases can unite chemically with other elements. Because they do non readily organize compounds with other elements, the baronial gases are sometimes called the inert & # 8211 ; gases.
Certain belongingss of elements vary in regular ways from left to compensate across a period. These belongingss include electron agreement, responsiveness, atomic size, and metallic belongingss. The valency figure of an elements is related to the negatrons in the ourter most energy degree of an atom of that component. It is these negatrons that are involved in the chemical combine of elements to organize compounds.