Arthropoda being the largest phylum in all of the kingdom Animalia, makes up about of all known animal species. From tiny terrestrial insects to the aquatic king crab equipped with a 12 foot arm span, arthropods are evident in every habitat on Earth. Despite the diversified phylum, all members share a basic body structure containing a jointed skeletal covering with jointed appendages. An arthropod’s unique Jointed exoskeleton provides support as well as locomotion with the help of the muscle system.

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Since they have an exoskeleton, arthropods lack locomotive cilia. The exoskeleton Is composed of a epicycle, a thin outer protein layer, and a tactical, a thick chitin-protein layer. By the process of molting or, arthropods shed off the old exoskeleton periodically to allow for growth. The underlying cells start by releasing enzymes to digest the base of much of the and then the epidermis secretes a new skeleton beneath the old one. The old exoskeleton then splits along a specified line and the organism comes out of the old covering.

Arthropods are, having three germ cell layers: the, Antietam and mistime. They have segmented bodies that bear jointed appendages. These jointed appendages give arthropods their name which means “jointed teat-. Arthropods exhibit bilateral symmetry much like humans. The right halt ot their bodies are mirror images out the let halt. Contributing to the diverse life forms in Arthropoda are extremely diverse systems of feeding and digestion. Carnivores, herbivores, and parasites all exist within arthropods.

The appendages at the mouth usually distinguish from arthropod to arthropod based on their diets, Spiders have a pair of fangs or that deliver poison into their prey, Scorpions inject poison by a single stinger at the tip of their tails. Some insects have piercing appendages at the mouth to gnaw at vegetation and suck out plant Juice. Most arthropods have a similar two way digestive system with a mouth, anus and a The mid gut is typically where enzymes are produced and nutrients are absorbed.

In the scorpion, food passes through the mouth, pharynx, esophagus, and mid gut Wastes travel to the hind gut and

Page 2 The phylum Arthropoda Essay

are expelled through the nus Some spiders grind up their prey using the and absorb nutrients In the mid gut. Nitrogenous wastes are converted into uric acid and expelled as dry material. Since a butterfly only feeds on liquids, It absorbs proteins and minerals from the food and expels waste as pellets or liquid from the Arthropods have an open circulatory system with a dorsal heart and system of arteries, which can be limited (In Insects) or extensive (In crustaceans).

The arteries bring blood Into, or tissue spaces, which drains into a pericardia sinus round the heart. Paired openings known as line the length of the heart and allow blood flow when the valves are open. while the heart contracts, valves close to back flow of blood. The blood branches out throughout the body and Is delivered Into tissues. In water-dwelling arthropods, blood passes through the gills to be oxygenated on its trip back to the heart. Some arachnids and crustaceans have crustaceans have blood with hemoglobin. Arthropods include lobsters, crabs, insects, spiders, mites, centipedes, and millipedes.

Scientists estimate over tens of millions of different arthropod species in existence. In the sub phylum Crustacean there are barnacles, shrimp, crabs, fish and lobsters. In the sub phylum, there are spiders, mites, ticks, scorpions, and orb weavers. In the sub phylum, there are ants, cockroaches, butterflies, and fleas. In conclusion, arthropods make up the majority of animals on earth. The diversity of these life forms and their habitats may seem overwhelming, but what groups them under this one phylum is one distinguishing characteristic: Jointed appendages.

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