All new staff are given a copy of the policies and procedures above during the induction period, they are expected to sign when read and understood. All policies and procedures are on display at all times for parents and carers to view. Each policy is reviewed annually.

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2.3 Most children are ready to begin toilet training between 24 to 27 months, but some children will be ready earlier or later than that. If you start earlier, toilet learning will probably just take longer. A good positive relationship with the child’s key person is important as is good communication. Working with parents and carers is vital to ensure consistency. Stickers and reward charts are a great way to encourage progress.

3.1 Babies and young children need physical activities and exercise to increase their stamina and strength this will improve muscle tone and muscle usage. [ Leading to Better balance and flexibility in the child, Improved bone strength and heart and lung capacity, improved coordination, catching and throwing skills, enjoyment, motivation and social skills, energy boost, helps stop stress and anxiety, positive affect of self esteem. Physical activity and movement help stimulate much brain growth and facilitate key connections for learning, regular exercise and engagements in all varieties of physical activity are critical for healthy brain development in children. pre mobile needs time to develop muscle tone so they can begin to crawl. These activities are used good for physical development at our preschool indoors stairs, wooden large bricks to climb and balance on, moving to music, balls to roll, soft play to climb on and move about on. Sit and ride toy which changes into a walker. Outside slides, logs to climb and balance on, trikes and balance bikes, tractor wheels to climb and use to pull on, balls to roll.

4.1 The policies and procedures we have in our setting to cover health, safety and protection of babies and young children are:- •Health and safety policy

•Safeguarding policy
•Missing child policy
•Daily risk assessment check list
•Annual health and safety audits
4.4 To minimise ‘sudden infant death syndrome’you should follow the current advice and:-

Page 2 The policies and procedures that protect babies Essay

•Place the baby on his or her back to sleep at nap time.

• You should avoid fluffy, loose bedding in the baby’s sleep area

• Keep the baby’s face clear of coverings.

• Be careful not to overheatthe baby by overdressing or adding unnecessary covers

. • Don’t allow anyone to smoke around the baby.
• Use a firm mattress in a safety-approved crib. Avoid the use of infant positioning devices.

• Do not allow the baby to sleep alongside another person. The risk of unintentional smothering is too great.

• Keep all appointments with health visitor, including immunizations.

5.3 Cow’s milk-based formula- Most baby formula milks are based on cow’s milk, which is modified to resemble breast milk as closely as possible. Manufacturers modify cow’s milk for babies by adjusting carbohydrate, protein, and fat levels and adding vitamins and minerals. There are also special types of formula manufactured for premature babies. The protein in milk can be broken down into curds (casein) and whey. The ratio of casein to whey can vary according to the type of baby formula milk. There are two main types:

First-stage formula. These milks consist of mostly whey, with a casein:whey ratio of 40:60, which is about the same as breast milk. They are suitable for your baby from birth up to about a year, and are thought to be easier to digest. Second-stage formula. These milks consist of mostly casein, with a casein:whey ratio of 80:20. They take longer to digest and are often promoted as being for hungrier babies. Nutritionally, your baby will only need first-stage formula, although you may decide to move your baby onto second-stage formula as she grows. Be cautious when changing your baby’s milk.

Switching from first to second-stage milk too early can give your baby constipation. Although many milk manufacturers market their second-stage milk as suitable from birth, it’s best to wait until your baby is at least four weeks old. If your baby doesn’t seem content with the formula you first started her on, talk to your health visitor before changing formulas. When your baby is a year old, you can move her on from first or second-stage formula to cow’s milk. Cow’s milk is not recommended as a main drink for babies under the age of one because it is low in iron and vitamin C.

But you can use small amounts in cooking for your baby when she has started solids, or on her breakfast cereal.

6.2 There are many food allergies and intolerances that a child may experience, allergic reactions can be very serious, even life-threatening. A severe reaction is called anaphylactic shock or anaphylaxis. It is a rapid, extreme response to a trigger substance. It can happen within minutes or hours of being exposed to an allergen.

Food intolerance is different from an allergy. It is not caused by an immune reaction. It is caused by the body having trouble absorbing a sugar. An allergy is caused by a reaction to a protein. A food intolerance causes discomfort but is not dangerous to the child. There is no medication to prevent a food allergy. The goal of treatment is to avoid the foods that cause the symptoms, and other similar foods in that food group. If breast feeding, it is important to avoid foods in your diet to which your child is allergic. It is important that we follow carers instructions on the needs of their child.

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