The Roman Legion 24Ad Essay Research Paper
The Roman Legion, 24Ad Essay, Research Paper
The Roman Legion 14 AD-235 AD
The Roman Republic was established in 509 B.C. and lasted until 27 B.C. when the Roman Empire replaced it. During the Roman Republic the Roman ground forces was deliberately composed of landholders. The Roman doctrine behind this strategic manoeuvre revolved around the belief that landholders would support their belongings and state more scrupulously than those who had no vested involvement.
The policy of utilizing landholders in the ground forces continued until Rome began to spread out its boundary lines. Soldiers were deployed overseas to protect the lands that had fallen to Roman conquering every bit good as to occupy new lands. As a consequence of its expansionist policies Rome needed more soldiers that it could supply by utilizing landholders. Further justification for a alteration in policy was that Romans sent oversees were non needfully as vigilant in respect to protecting land in their ownership since that land was far from where they were stationed.
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This made the usage of landholders no more good than that of non-landowners. The land proprietor demand was accordingly dropped in 107 B.C.
Rome began to use alternate schemes in staffing their great ground forcess. When Rome conquered a state they made the conquered peoples citizens of Rome and as such the people of the states could volunteer and function in the ground forces. Since land ownership was no longer a requirement, the lower categories were allowed to come in the ground forces besides and these voluntaries developed into a loyal, professional ground forces. The ground forces grew in Numberss until about 20 B.C. when it was approximately 300,000 strong. The size of the ground forces remained at about the same Numberss until the autumn of the imperium.
The Roman ground forces was divided into elements called hosts. A host consisted of from 4,000 to 6,000 work forces harmonizing to different clip periods. During the Roman Empire the emperor appointed a general to command each host. The general, in bend, was allowed six commissioned officers as Plutos. These Plutos were known as tribunes. Somewhere ver 60 non-commissioned officers called centurions, the equivalent of the sergeant in the contemporary U.S. military, served under the tribunes. The centurions were effectual leaders of the ground forces. Each centurion was in charge of about 100 work forces in a subdivision called a century.
When traveling into conflict the host would organize into 120 work forces groups called a maniple. The host conflict formation would be three rows of maniples. In the forepart row the maniples would go forth a infinite equivalent to another maniple between each maniple. The forepart row would run into the enemy force and throw their lances so attack with blades. This would let the 2nd row to bear down into the empty infinite left between the assailing front row maniples and give support with a 2nd moving ridge after initial contact by the forepart row. The 3rd row would so come in the battle and with thrusting lances secure the conflict. These tactics along with the well-trained professional soldiers made the Roman army one of the greatest combat forces in history.
If efficiency can be gauged by the acquisition of land, the efficiency of the Roman Empire would worsen slightly between the first and 3rd centuries A.D. During this period there were 25 Roman emperors. Although the Roman Empire was at its tallness of power and prosperity between A.D. 96 and 180 during the reign of Antonines, the Empire expanded its territory really small after the deat
H of Augustus in A.D. 14. The period get downing with the reign of Augustus in 27 B.C. and widening 200 old ages into Rome s hereafter became known as the Pax Romana ( The Roman Peace ) . This was a period of great stableness for the Roman Empire. Warfare did go on but it was slightly less intense and frequent. In this regard it would be more appropriate to measure the efficiency of the Roman hosts as one of stabilisation non of decline.
During the peace, nevertheless, some major engagements did occur. On Augustus decease Tiberius, who was non merely Augustus stepson but besides his son-in-law, became the emperor of Rome ( Asimov 196 ) . His way to the throne leaves many inquiries which are certain to entertain historiographers good into the hereafter but he would sagely follow the footfalls of Augustus in non occupying Britain, judging that the Empire was already excessively extended ( Goldsmith PG ) . Tiberius was succeeded by Caligula and so by Claudius. Caligula would content himself with idle menaces against Britain but take no existent action ( Goldsmith PG ) . Emperor Claudius would, nevertheless, invade Britain in A.D. 43 and Trajan conquered Dacia in A.D. 106 ( Connor PG ) . Even in the ill-famed British invasion the strength of warfare which erupted was nil to fit that of the Empire s earlier history ( Connor PG ) . Some say that Britain welcomed the invasion with unfastened weaponries recognizing the possible benefit of Roman regulation ( Connor PG ) . The Roman foreparts were expeditiously manned but all-in-all the likeliness of a legionary engaging in serious warfare decreased during the clip period of the Roman Peace.
Get downing with the reign of Marcus Aurelius in A.D. 161 the stableness of the Roman Peace would get down to worsen. Emperor Marcus Aurelous was threatened by encroachers from Germany in the North and the Parthians from the E. Aurelius would be succeeded to the throne by his boy, Commodus. With the decease of Commodus in 192 the Roman Empire would see serious break. During a 50 twelvemonth period, crossing between 235 to 284 A.D. , 60 different emperors would do their manner to the throne prehending power by force. This would be the terminal of the Roman Peace and the terminal of Roman stableness.
The history of the Roman Empire contains periods of much convulsion interspersed with periods of great stableness. While it was true that Augustus himself preferred peaceable methods to warlike methods, his reign had seen much bloodshed ( Grant 160 ) . Consequently, the Roman imperium saw much enlargement and patterned advances during his the reign of Augustus. The Eastern Frontier was pushed frontward, Galatia was formed, Numidia was annexed and Roman troops reached the Elbe River and these were merely a little parts of the triumph of Augustus and of Rome ( Grant 160 ) . During the reign of Augustus the opportunities of a host non meeting serious warfare was little. In contrast, the period get downing in A.D. 14 was a period of great stableness and comparatively small serious warfare. The period get downing with the reign of Marcus Aurelius in A.D. 161 would one time once more go a period of turbulency for the Roman Empire. One emperor after another would contend his manner to the throne and the armed forces would be shaken from the changeless alteration in power and policy. Although there was still small external warfare of any significance, there were menaces by ground forcess occupying the Empire. The Roman Empire was get downing a slow spiral of diminution, a diminution which would stop with its death over 200 old ages subsequently in 476 A.D.