The Roman Republic And The Creation Of Roman Empire Essay Sample
Leadership truly plays a major function in constructing a house and permanent foundation for the Roman Republic and the creative activity of the Roman Empire. Many have tried to present a good authorities to Rome but merely a few rich person succeeded. Power. wealth. and celebrity are non adequate facets of a good leader. If I am right. nevertheless. non all the times the behavior of the Roman regulating category had to be justified in footings of the Roman system of values. This form is relevant to the advancement of the Roman Revolution.
In 509 B. C. the Romans rose in rebellion against the Etruscans swayers and formed their ain democracy – a authorities without a male monarch. This new Roman democracy was governed by the two head magistrates called consuls and a organic structure called the senate. The consuls were the main executives. and besides headed the ground forces. The senate was the most powerful portion of the authorities of the democracy.
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The senate controlled Rome’s fundss and foreign personal businesss.
The patrician category occupied every of import place in authorities. including the senate. This caused dissatisfaction among the plebians. for they have small power in the new democracy. Finally. in 494 B. C. the plebians threatened to divide from Rome unless reforms will be implemented.
A via media was done: Every twelvemonth. the plebians would elect 10 functionaries called tribunes. who would support the involvement of the people against the opinion categories. The tribunes were powered to barricade determinations from the consuls and the Senate which they believed was unjust to the people. As clip passed. the tribunes besides gained the power to do new Torahs.
Around 450 B. C. . the plebians were given the right to hold their Torahs written. As a consequence. Roman jurisprudence was brought together in a individual written codification of Torahs known as Twelve Tables. The codification covered most facets of public and private life. Even though the plebians were allowed to run. for office and ballot. they about lost because the paticians used their wealth to purchase their ballots and win popularity. If a plebian won. he would bury his fellowmen and began to see himself as a patrician.
As the Roman Republic extended its power beyond its districts. it was inevitable that Rome would collide with Carthage. a rival rich city state on the north seashore of Africa merely face-to-face Rome. Carthage controlled the countries lying on the North Africa seashore and Spain. When Carthage attempted to take over the eastern half of Sicily. the male monarch of Syracuse appealed to Rome for aid.
Therefore. begins the more than a 100 old ages of war between Rome and Carthage. This series of war was called the Punic Wars. The most of import Punic war was the 2nd because it marked the start of the diminution of Carthage. It involved Hannibal. the general who lead the Carthaginians and Scipio Africanus. the general who lead the Romans. Hannibal was a great Punic general. He attempted to capture Rome by traversing the Alps with his ground forces and elephants but he was finally defeated by Scipio.
With the licking of Carthage. Rome went on to suppress Egypt. Palestine. Asia Minor. Greece and Spain. Rome therefore became the most powerful province in the universe. By A. D. 50 what had been a small metropolis of husbandmans of Tiber River had become the capital of the Mediterranean universe. Rome besides occupied all of Europe from Spain in the West to France and Germany in the North and E far Britain up in the North.
With its huge imperium. Rome tried to keep its republican signifier of authorities. But this became harder and harder to make since a democracy was non suited to govern a huge imperium. The diminution of the Roman democracy. nevertheless. was gradual. At this clip. two patrician brothers. Tiberius and Gaius Gracchus. whom their widowed female parent Cornelia had proudly called her gems and had rise for service to their people. tried to present reforms. They proposed to restrict the size of the lands owned by the rich. to resettle fain husbandmans. and to give more power to the assembly. But they failed. Tiberius was assassinated. and Gaius was forced to perpetrate self-destruction.
What followed was about half century of war between the Senate and the plebians. Then came a civil war between Marius. a hero of the hapless. and Sulla. a great warrior of the democracy. Sulla won and became a dictator for three old ages and so retired. The Senate continued to rule the democracy until. in 60 B. C. and three outstanding Roman leaders form a triumvirate against the Senate. The triumvirate was composed of Pompey. Crassus. and Julius Caesar. The three agreed to govern Rome by taking bends as consul.
While he was non a consul. Julius Caesar. in an effort to derive popularity. successfully extended the Roman district over the Gauls. which is now France and Belgium. Fearful of popularity. the senate ordered Caesar to return place without his ground forces. Alternatively Caesar marched to Rome and declared himself a dictator.
Caesar introduced moderate reforms. He reduced revenue enhancement. improved the disposal of the states and provided lands for landless citizens in the settlements.
The senate became afraid that Caesar would declare himself king and get down a dynasty. A group of work forces. one of whom was Marcus Brutus. one of his best friends. articulation in a secret plan to kill Caesar. On March 15. 44 B. C. a twenty-four hours known as the “Ides of March. ” the schemers surrounded Caesar on the Senate hall and stabbed him to decease. Caesar’s blackwash did non stop the one-person regulation but alternatively gave rise to a long line of absolute swayers.
After Caesar’s decease. Cicero. the celebrated speechmaker. took charge of the democracy. He tried to win the people’s support by his fluency but failed. His failure was chiefly due to the formation of the 2nd triumvirate consisting of Mark Anthony. Lepidus. and Octaviuos. Lepidus was subsequently expelled from the triumvirate. go forthing Anthony. who chose to remain in Antioch and regulate the Eastern Roman states while Octavious governed the West of Rome.
For the following 10 old ages. Octavian and Anthony shared absolute power in the Republic ; but the confederation proved to be impermanent. While Octavian was astutely increasing power in Rome. Anthony had fallen in love with Cleopatra. the glamourous queen of Egypt. Word reached Rome that Anthony had given Roman district to Cleofatra and was plotting to prehend the whole democracy for himself.
In 31 B. C. . Octavian’s fleet clashed with that of Anthony and Cleofatra in the Battle of Actium. off the western seashore of Greece. When Cleofatra fled. Anthony deserted his work forces and followed her to Egypt. Octavian landed in Egypt the undermentioned twelvemonth. Anthony and Cleofatra. unable to form the naval forces to contend against him. committed self-destruction. Egypt and the eastern states so accepted the regulation of the Octavian. . who became the unchallenged leader of Rome and ruled as dictator.
The Battle of Actium marked the terminal of the Roman democracy and the start of Roman Empire. Octavius became the first emperor. The Senate conferred on him the name of Augustus Caesar. He reigned for 41 old ages. from 27 B. C. to A. D. 14. His reign was marked by Roman prosperity and advancement. He introduced good authorities by naming honest and efficient functionaries. He improved the system of revenue enhancement. built roads and aqueducts. and promoted agribusiness and commercialism. He adorned Rome with brilliant marble temple. baths. and theaters
Augustus Caesar united the Roman universe and brought peace and order. He extended the Roman Empire to its natural boundaries – the English Channel ; Rhine and the Danube Rivers in Europe ; the Euphrates River in Asia ; and the Sahara Desert in Africa. Legions composed of citizens and subsidiary forces composed of provincial work forces were deployed along the frontiers. Augustus commanded all the ground forcess and had the power to declare war and do peace. He initiated some of import reforms.
An Imperial civil service composed of authorities of functionaries from the in-between category was organized. He organized the ground forces into a extremely disciplined. professional organic structure. loyal to the emperor. Officials were appointed to stand for him in the states. Senators who continued to move as governors were personally supervised by Augustus to cut down the enticement of over-collection of revenue enhancements for their personal glorification. The regulation of Augustus is sometimes referred to as the Golden Age of Rome because of its prosperity and artistic accomplishments. The Roman Empire enjoyed comparative peace and prosperity.
Augustus had able to work out the jobs of the Roman Republic. He put an terminal to the progressing decay of the authorities. Leaderships before him had their ain manner of work outing the jobs but failed to make it. The attempt of uniting people and burying themselves for the good of everybody were non-existent during their leading. There were struggle of thoughts which resulted into problem. They think that jobs could be solve through prosecuting into conflict. They fight and decease to protect the wealth and luxury of others. Most of them were more interested in continuing their privileges than in work outing the jobs of the hapless.
Gaius octavianus reforms were concentrating for the good of bulk. His reforms helped reconstruct assurance in Rome. The leading of Augustus has ability to influence. motivate. and enable others to lend toward the effectivity and success of the state.
Rome achieved great glorification through the leading of Agustus. He restored peace after 100 old ages of civil war ; maintained an honorable authorities and a sound currency system ; extended the main road system linking Rome with its widespread imperium ; developed an efficient postal service ; fostered free trade among the states.