The Search For Intelligent Life Essay Research
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The Search For Intelligent Life Essay, Research Paper
The Search for Intelligent Life
A innovator in NASA & # 8217 ; s Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence ( SETI ) , Frank Drake, proposed an equation that calculates the figure of civilisations in the galaxy. It is based on the fraction of stars with planets, the proportion of those that are inhabitable and the life of technological civilisations ( Overbye 46 ) . Optimists, utilizing the equation, have arrived with 1 million civilisations in the milklike manner entirely. Looking at the size of the existence and how common certain compounds are, that figure shouldn & # 8217 ; t be excessively far from the truth. With so much of our milieus we haven & # 8217 ; t seen and wear & # 8217 ; t cognize of, it shouldn & # 8217 ; t be surprising that we are non entirely.
Even if we don & # 8217 ; t cognize if aliens exist, we can speculate on what type of planet they could last on. Water is an indispensable compound because of its necessity towards life. It provides an country for biochemical reactions, and could be of planets similar to earth in size and distance from the Sun ( Angel and Woolf 62 ) . Those planets have a opportunity of incorporating C based life signifiers. Carbon is an highly of import compound because it is the foundation of most beings. Its copiousness in the existence and ability to organize complex molecules increase the opportunity of it being the edifice block of other civilisations ( Angel and Woolf 61 ) . Gravity is necessary because it holds the planet together. It must be strong plenty to keep the ambiance and H2O on the planet & # 8217 ; s surface. The size and denseness of the planet determines the gravitation of the organic structure ( Angel and Woolf 62 ) .
Radio moving ridges are a better agencies of communicating because of the possibility of vocally pass oning instead than merely seeing them with telescopes. The history of wireless communications begins in 1969, when the thought was suggested by two physicists, Morrison and Giuseppe Cocconi ( Overbye 44 ) . They were chosen because they are a more efficient and economical manner to pass on. We have been airing the being of humanity for 50 old ages through wireless and telecasting signals, and those signals have passed more than 1000 stars ( Overbye 44 ) . All these hunts are based on the premise that life can be found within 80 light old ages of the Sun ( Henbest ) . The one job of utilizing wireless moving ridges is happening the frequence and star an alien may seek to signal from. To assistance in that hunt, two waies have been taken. The first is the multi-channel spectrum analyser, created by NASA, defeats the job of seeking to happen the right frequence. It splits the signal into 74000 frequence channels and hunts them all at the same time ( Overbye 48 ) . The other way is the H atom frequence. Hydrogen atoms emit a radiation when the axis on which the orbiting negatrons spin, somersaults from being parallel to the karyon to being opposite. SETI scientists believe this frequence would be chosen by other intelligent life. Bob Dixon of Ohio State University, works full-time on seeking the frequence H atoms emit ( Henbest ) . Spectroscopy is a method that uses light coming from the organic structure and analyzes it for any markers that help research workers determine things like temperature, atmospheric force per unit area, and chemical composing. Out of these markers, wireless signals are the easiest to descry ( Angel and Woolf 60 ) .What if we do happen a signal? Both the International Astronomical Federation ( IAC ) and NASA have come up with protocols on what to make if a possible E. T. signal is picked up. With the IAC protocol, the signal is verified by computing machines and operators, so information about it is sent through regular scientific discipline and public channels ( Overbye 48 ) . The NASA protocol minimizes the opportunity that a false find or fraud could go through for a true
signal. The computing machine goes through a series of cheques and exercisings to verify the signal. Then it notifies the operator who monitors the beginning and takes it from there ( Overbye 48 ) .
Probably the most exciting intelligence in the hunt for life is the Marss meteorite that was discovered in the Allan Hills of Antarctica. It was found eight old ages ago and named ALH84001, after Allan Hills, where it was found ( Cowen ) . It shows grounds that life may hold existed on Marss 3.6 billion old ages ago. Apart from incorporating magnetic iron-ore and Fe sulphide, compounds besides produced here on Earth ( Cowen ) . It carried bantam, cannular, elliptic constructions that looked like dodos of ancient one-celled bacteriums besides found on Earth ( Cowen ) . Another exciting find is the possibility of one of Jupiter & # 8217 ; s Moons, Europa, incorporating life. Europa & # 8217 ; s atmosphere is rich in O, fulfilling the basic features. The Jovian Moon is wholly enveloped in H2O, both frozen and solid, but the nucleus may be hot, leting life to last and turn in its deep Waterss ( Broad ) . Crevices were found on the icy surface, proposing pelagic currents. Plans are being made to take images of the Moon through Galileo in February ( Broad ) . Besides, during an drawn-out mission in 1997 and 1998, images will be taken from 400 stat mis off from the surface Europa ( Broad ) . The finds of possible countries of life have excited the universe and will transport its involvement good into the following century, hopefully adequate clip for manned visits and possibly even communicating.
For many old ages, people claimed they saw UFOs in the sky, and most of those claims sounded hideous. But two certain events may raise some inquiries on truth. On April 18, 19 67, a radiance ruddy object landed near Eureka, Utah. It was tracked by the North American Air Defense Command. The object continued winging but so disappeared from radio detection and ranging screens 70 stat mis north-west of Las Vegas. An perceiver says he saw an aerial detonation ( Clark 93 ) . In the 80 & # 8217 ; s research worker Kevin Randle interviewed a soldier who claimed he was taken to pick up the dust of
a trade, and said it looked like a winging disk ( Clark 93 ) . The 2nd incident began when spread chief Mac Brazel discovered dust from a unusual construction spread over a field, widening
three quarters of a
stat mi in length in Corona, New Mexico. He took it to Roswell where Sheriff George Wilcox looked at it and called Roswell Army Air Field ( Stacy 34 ) . July 8, 1947, Lt. Walter Haut from the Roswell Field Air Force Base, announces in the Roswell Daily Record that the rumours of UFOs became a world and that they had a “flying disc.” The article circled the Earth, where major newspapers were publishing that UFOs were existent ( Stacy 36 ; Clark 92 ) . The phonograph record was taken to Eighth Air Force Headquarters in Fort Worth where General Roger Ramey announced at a imperativeness conference that it was nil more than a conditions balloon. Assistants and other officers stuck to the original statement, but the universe believed the general. The Center for UFO Studies interviewed people in the Roswell country and air force functionaries. Some sources said foreign organic structures were recovered ( Clark 92 ) . The Roswell incident was merely the beginning of something known as the “Cosmic Watergate.” The uninterrupted cover-up of the authoritiess cognition of extraterrestrial Unidentified flying objects and their activities ( Stacy 36 ) . Stanton Friedman, a atomic physicist, interviewed Major Jesse Marcel, an functionary in the Roswell instance. “He didn’t know what the stuff was, except it was nil he had of all time seen before and surely wasn’t from any conditions balloon” ( Stacy 38 ) . The stuff was featherweight, couldn’t be dented by a maul, or burned by a blowlamp ( Stacy 38 ) . The two incidents affecting UFOs show how the military takes attention of instances like that and how an thought of confederacy could organize ; when two ground forces functionaries, depicting the same thing, contradict each other.
In most state of affairss, the authorities has denied any allegations of extraterrestrial being, but sometimes errors are made. On Oct. 20, 1969, Brig. General C. H. Bolender wrote a memo
stating, & # 8221 ; studies of unidentified winging objects which could impact national security & # 8230 ; are non portion of the Blue Book System ( Stacy 38 ) . & # 8221 ; That means the important UFO studies were non taken to
the public bureaus, but someplace else. Another contention is the suspected top secret base in Nevada called Groom Lake and besides known as Area 51. It is thought to keep UFOs and other unknown aircrafts. The air force denies its being, but bought 3,900 estates of land surrounding it to seal off two public sing sites ( Stacy 40 ) . Many journalists have besides talked to sources that worked for the authorities to acquire information. Robert O. Dean, a retired Army Command Sergeant Major, claims that back in the 1960ss, the Supreme Headquarters Allied Powers, Europe ( SHAPE ) , a portion of NATO, stated that UFOs were existent, from other planets, and had visited Earth ( Rayl 50 ) . The NATO study concluded: 1. ) Earth and the human race have been surveyed by several extraterrestrial civilisations, four of which have been seen. 2. ) These trials have been traveling on for at least 200 old ages. 3. ) The visual aspects and manoeuvres were merely to demo their capablenesss. A certain program seemed to hold been followed because of the patterned advance from merely flybys to existent contact ( Rayl 54 ) . Everything that has happened to propose possible extraterrestrial life, the authorities has denied, possibly as a cover-up.
Over the old ages, as more grounds has been turned up and more people speak out, public bureaus and groups have been formed, to lengthen the argument. The air force set up one UFO probe bureau called Blue Book, which began in the late fortiess and ended in December 1969 ( Stacy 38 ) . Probably one of the hard-hitters in this country are the Citizens Against UFO Secrecy ( CAUS ) . They are a Connecticut-based group of citizens who challenge the authorities and top secret UFO paperss. They filed for the release of NSA paperss that pertain to the UFO phenomenon. The NSA admitted the documents existed, but would non let go of them due to
national security. Finally through petitions and cases, CAUS managed to get big sums of classified paperss ( Stacy 38 ) . Barry Greenwood, manager of research with CAUS, dealt with
the CIA about many paperss. & # 8221 ; It & # 8217 ; s involvement and engagement in UFOs ended in 1953. After a drawn-out case, the CIA finally released more than a 1000 pages of paperss & # 8221 ; ( Stacy 38 ) . Many of the paperss were merely records of sightings and contained nil disclosure, but one study was a little more exciting. It was released by the North American Aerospace Defense Command ( NORAD ) , and said that several military bases were put on qui vive position following sightings in October and November of 1975 ( Stacy 40 ) . Though the authorities doesn & # 8217 ; t pay much attending to them, several public bureaus still fight for the truth, bit by bit doing advancement.
The possibility that intelligent life exists on other planets is non a implausible thought. The existence is incredibly big and much of it is still uncharted. Other planets could mime the conditions on Earth and life could boom on those planets. The hopes still exist that the long trail of grounds and could take to the find or contact of intelligent life outside our planet.
Angel, J. Roger P. And Neville J. Woolf. & # 8220 ; Searching for Life on Other Planets ( parts 1 and 2 ) . & # 8221 ;
Scientific American Apr. 1996: 60-66.
Broad, William J. & # 8220 ; Jupiters Moon Europa Could Be Habitat for Life & # 8221 ; New York Times Online
[ hypertext transfer protocol: //www.nytimes.com/news/science/europa.html ] 12/19/96
Clark, Jerome. & # 8220 ; Crash Landings. & # 8221 ; Omni Dec. 1990: 92-93.
Cowen, Ron. & # 8220 ; Meteorite Hints at Early Life on Mars. & # 8221 ; New York Times Online
[ hypertext transfer protocol: //www.nytimes.com/news/science/mars.html ] 12/19/96
Henbest, Nigel. & # 8220 ; SETI: The Search Continues. & # 8221 ; New Scientist
[ hypertext transfer protocol: //www.newscientist.com/ps/limit/mars/seti.html ] 12/11/96
Overbye, Dennis. & # 8220 ; The Big Ear. & # 8221 ; Omni Dec. 1990: 42-48
Stacy, Dennis. & # 8220 ; Cosmic Conspiracy: Six Decades of Government Cover-Ups. & # 8221 ; Omni Apr.
1994: 34-40, 109-110.
Rayl, A. J. S. & # 8220 ; Inside the Military UFO Underground. & # 8221 ; Omni Apr. 1994: 48-59.