The Solar System Essay Research Paper Assignment

The Solar System Essay, Research Paper

Assignment 1: The Solar System

The solar system consists of the Sun ; the nine planets, 67 orbiters of the planets and a big figure of little organic structures ( comets and asteroids ) .

The inner solar system contains the Sun, Mercury, Venus, Earth and Mars:

The planets of the outer solar system are Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune and Pluto: The orbits of the planets are ellipses with the Sun at one focal point, though all except Mercury and Pluto are really about round. The orbits of the planets are all more or less in the same plane ( called the ecliptic and defined by the plane of the Earth & # 8217 ; s orbit ) . The ecliptic is inclined merely 7 grades from the plane of the Sun & # 8217 ; s equator. Pluto & # 8217 ; s orbit deviates the most from the plane of the ecliptic with an disposition of 17 grades. Below you see a diagram that show some comparative information about most of the objects in our Solar System:

Diameter ( kilometer ) Moons Surface temp. Surface gravitation Axial disposition Axial rotary motion

The Sun 1 390 000 & # 8211 ; 5800c & # 8211 ; – 25 & # 8211 ; 36 yearss

Mercury 4 878 None 350c / -170c 0.38 0 58 yearss

Venus 12 104 None 480c 0.9 178 243 yearss

The Earth 12 756 1 20c 1 23.4 23h 56m

Red planets 6 787 None -23c 0.38 24 24h 37m

Jupiter N/A 16 -150c 2.64 3.1 9h 50m

Saturn 199 300 18 -180c 1.2 26.7 10h 39m

Uranus 51 800 15 -210c 1.2 98 17h 10m

Neptune 49 500 8 -220c 1.2 29.5 18h 24m

Pluto 2 320 1 N/A 0.04 50 178 old ages

The Moon 3 474 & # 8211 ; 107c / -153c 0.17 1.5 27 yearss

The Sun

The Sun is the most of import portion of our solar system. It is the biggest object and does hold about 98 % of the whole mass of the solar system. About 1,3 billion Earths would suit inside the Sun.

The Sun travels around the galaxy together with planets and other objects bound to it by gravitative forces. The largest of the organic structures we call planets, most of which are in bend are orbited by smaller Moons or orbiters. These objects, together with many lesser multitudes, are known as the Solar system.

The Sun is merely a star, one of a 100 billion populating our galaxy entirely. Bing a star the Sun is an illustration of the cardinal edifice blocks of our existence. It formed, 4.5 billion old ages ago, as the karyon of a cloud of gas which was fall ining under its ain gravitative attractive force.

At formation, H was the most abundant gas, as elsewhere in the existence, and accounted for three quarters of the Sun & # 8217 ; s original stuff. This will alter as the H is burned, and within the really cardinal parts virtually all the H has been converted to He. The outer parts have non yet taken portion in H combustion. Astronomers have measured the chemical composing of the Sun, and can therefore gauge that of the initial solar nebula from which the Sun and planets formed. In add-on to 78 per centum by weight of H, they find 20 per centum to be helium, while merely 2 per centum remains for other elements such as O, C, N, and Fe.

Subsequently, as its H becomes depleted, it will germinate into a elephantine ruddy star, swelling to steep the Earth and the interior planets. The remnant Sun will melt bit by bit to limbo, go throughing through the white midget phase on its manner.


Mercury is named after the courier of the Roman Gods. It is the smallest of the interior planets and the 2nd smallest in the whole Solar System. It has a really weak magnetic field and & # 8211 ; being the closest planet to the Sun & # 8211 ; has merely a really thin ambiance of He captured from the solar air current.

The surface of Mercury is really much like the Moon & # 8217 ; s & # 8211 ; with craters, mountains and vales. Since there is no signifier of ambiance, life on Mercury is impossible. Nor will at that place be any manned flights in the forseeable hereafter. However, there will be new remote-controlled investigations sent out, if merely to finish the map of the surface.

Although Mercury has merely a 3rd the diameter of Earth, its denseness is about the same. This suggests that 65 to 70 per centum of Mercury & # 8217 ; s weight is made up of a heavy stuff, likely Fe. This is concentrated in Mercury & # 8217 ; s big nucleus. The outer bed is made of sillicate stone similar to the Earth & # 8217 ; s mantle.


Venus is named after the Roman goddess of love. It is the 2nd planet from the Sun and the brightest object in the sky other than the Sun and the Moon. It was one time believed that life could be in Venus but that has been proved incorrect by assorted investigations. In fact, Venus has the most hostile environment in the full Solar System. The surface temperature is ferociously hot and the atmospheric force per unit area is oppressing. One of the more evident things that separate Venus from all the other planets in our solar system is that it rotates from E to west ( all the other planets rotate from West to east ) . Because of this, Venus is said to be about upside down.

Conditionss may hold been better in the yesteryear. In the early phases of the Solar System, the Sun was non every bit bright as it is now and so Venus and the Earth would hold formed likewise. When the Sun became brighter, the Earth was far plenty off to get away serious harm but Venus was non. The surface temperature rose and the oceans dried up.


The Earth, the 3rd planet ( stone ) from the Sun, is the largest of the interior planets and besides has the highest denseness. It is the lone planet in the Solar System to be covered mostly with H2O, the lone planet with an ambiance made up chiefly of N and O and the lone organic structure that has a temperature suitable for life of the type that we know. It is besides the lone interior planet with a big Moon & # 8211 ; Mercury and Venus have none and the Martian Moons are little. If the conditions on the Earth changed even somewhat, the life as we know it could decease out.

The Earth & # 8217 ; s rotary motion period is non changeless. It is easy lengthening due to tidal clash between the oceans and the sea floor. This is caused by the influence of the


Our Moon

The Moon has fascinated world throughout the ages. By merely sing with the bare oculus, one can spot two major types of terrain: comparatively bright Highlandss and darker fields. Current cognition of the Moon is greater than for any other solar system object except Earth. This lends to a greater apprehension of geologic procedures and farther grasp of the complexness of tellurian planets.

The comparatively bright, to a great extent cratered Highlandss are called terrae. The craters and basins in the Highlandss are formed by meteorite.

Red planets

Red planets is the 4th planet from the Sun and the 7th largest. Mars is sometimes referred to as the Red Planet. The name of the month March derives from Mars.

Mars has been known since prehistoric times. Except for Earth, Mars has the minute

T extremely varied and interesting terrain of any of the tellurian planets. One being Olympus Mons, the largest mountain in the Solar System lifting 24 kilometer ( 78,000 ft. ) above the environing field.

Like Mercury and the Moon, Mars appears to miss active home base tectonics at present ; there is no grounds of recent horizontal gesture of the surface such as the folded mountains so common on Earth.


Jupiter is named after the male monarch of the Roman Gods. It is the largest planet in the Solar System, the 5th planet from the Sun and the first of the outer planets

Jupiter has had a dominant consequence on a big portion of the Solar System. It is likely that Jupiter & # 8217 ; s immense gravitation has prevented a planet from organizing in the country now occupied by the Asteroid Belt. Jupiter has a magnetic field 20,000 times stronger than that of the Earth & # 8217 ; s, holding a annihilating consequence on its Moons.


Saturn is the 6th planet from the Sun and the 2nd largest: In Roman mythology, Saturn is the God of agribusiness and has been known since prehistoric times. Galileo was the first to detect it with a telescope in 1610 ; he noted its uneven visual aspect but was confused by it. Early observations of Saturn were complicated by the fact that the Earth passes through the plane of Saturn & # 8217 ; s rings every few old ages as Saturn moves in its orbit

Like Jupiter, Saturn is approximately 75 % H and 25 % He with hints of H2O, methane, ammonium hydroxide and & # 8220 ; stone & # 8221 ; , similar to the composing of the aboriginal Solar Nebula from which the solar system was formed.


Uranus is the Forth largest planet in the Solar System and the seventh from the Sun. Named after the male parent of Saturn, Uranus is a bluish green coloring material due to the methane in its ambiance. Its magnetic axis is at 60 grades to its axis of rotary motion. The unusual axial joust may hold been caused by a hit by a big organic structure early in Uranus & # 8217 ; life. Scientists must expect a new infinite mission.

Uranus is composed chiefly of stone and assorted ices, with merely about 15 % H and a small He ( in contrast to Jupiter and Saturn which are largely hydrogen ) .


Neptune & # 8211 ; named after the Roman God of the sea & # 8211 ; was discovered utilizing mathematic computations based on the orbit of Uranus. It is the 3rd largest planet in the Solar System and is normally the 2nd last planet in distance. Because of Pluto & # 8217 ; s eccentic orbit, Neptune is the last planet for 20 old ages every 247 old ages. Neptune was the last planet until late, when Pluto past it with its orbit and became the last planet once more.


Pluto was discovered on February 18, 1930, doing it the last planet found in our Solar System. Pluto is normally further from the Sun so any of the nine planets.

Ground-based observations indicate that Pluto & # 8217 ; s surface is covered with methane ice and that there is a thin ambiance that might stop dead and fall to the surface as the planet moves off from the Sun.

Pluto has one Moon & # 8211 ; Charon & # 8211 ; its surface composing seems to be different from Pluto & # 8217 ; s. The Moon appears to be covered with water-ice instead than methane ice. Its orbit is gravitationally locked with Pluto, so both organic structures ever keep the same hemisphere confronting each other.


Asteroids are bouldery and metallic objects that orbit the Sun but are excessively little to be considered planets. They are known as minor planets. Asteroids scope in size from Ceres, which has a diameter of about 1000 kilometer, down to the size of pebbles. Sixteen asteroids have a diameter of 240 kilometers or greater. They have been found inside Earth & # 8217 ; s orbit to beyond Saturn & # 8217 ; s orbit. Most, nevertheless, are contained within a chief belt that exists between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter.

Asteroids are material left over from the formation of the solar system. One theory suggests that they are the remains of a planet that was destroyed in a monolithic hit long ago.

Meteoroids and Meteorites

The term meteor comes from the Greek? meteoron? , intending phenomenon in the sky. A meteoroid is matter go arounding around the Sun or any object in interplanetary infinite that is excessively little to be called an asteroid or a comet. A meteorite is a meteoroid that reaches the surface of the Earth without being wholly vaporized.

Meteorites have proven hard to sort, but the three broadest groupings are rocky, rocky Fe, and Fe. The most common meteorites are chondrites, which are rocky meteorites. Radiometric dating of chondrites has placed them at the age of 4.55 billion old ages, which is the approximative age of the solar system.


Comets are little, delicate, irregularly molded organic structures composed of a mixture of non-volatile grains and frozen gases. They have extremely egg-shaped orbits that conveying them really near to the Sun and swing them profoundly into infinite, frequently beyond the orbit of Pluto.

Comet constructions are diverse and really dynamic, but they all develop a environing cloud of diffuse stuff, called a coma, that normally grows in size and brightness as the comet approaches the Sun.

As comets approach the Sun they develop tremendous dress suits of aglow stuff that extend for 1000000s of kilometres from the caput, off from the Sun.


Traditionally histories of Astronomy normally begin with the Greeks. The Grecian philosopher Aristotle held that the Earth is fixed at the centre of the existence while Ptolemy based a mathematical theoretical account of the traveling planets in our Solar System. Nicolaus Copernicus, in 1543, published his hypothesis that the Sun is the centre of the existence but since the instruction of Aristotle had been adopted by the church his position was seen as incredible.

1609 A.D. Five old ages after the visual aspect of the great supernova of 1604, Galileo builds his first telescope. He sees the Moons of Jupiter, Saturn & # 8217 ; s rings, the stages of Venus, and the stars in the Milky Way. He publishes the intelligence the undermentioned twelvemonth in & # 8220 ; The Starry Messinger & # 8221 ; .

1665 A.D. At the age of 23, immature Isaac Newton realizes that gravitative force histories for falling organic structures on Earth every bit good as the gesture of the Moon and the planets in orbit. This is a radical measure in the history of idea, as it extends the influence of earthly behaviour to the kingdom of the celestial spheres. One set of Torahs, discovered and tested on our planet, will be seen to regulate the full existence.

1905 A.D. The first of his many seminal parts to twentieth century scientific discipline, relativity recognizes the velocity of visible radiation as the absolute velocity bound in the existence and, as such, unites the antecedently separate constructs of infinite and clip into a incorporate spacetime. Eleven old ages subsequently, his General Theory of Relativity replaces Newton & # 8217 ; s theoretical account of gravitation with one in which the gravitative force is interpreted as the response of organic structures to deformations in spacetime which affair itself creates.

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