The Three Industrial Revolutions
The term industrial revolution refers means the strong transformation of a society- economically, socially, culturally and geographically. The Industrial revolution was a period from the 18th to the 19th century where major changes in manufacturing, agriculture, mining, transportation and technology had a profound effect on the social, cultural and economic conditions of the times. The main differences between the First and Second Industrial Revolution were the invisible hand in comparison to the visible hand in the Second Revolution.
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The use of non human labor such as coal and steam powered energy, compared to mass production with unskilled labor workers in the Second Industrial Revolution. Owners managing and owning their firms this is changed in the Second Revolution when managerial capitalism is introduced. The First Industrial Revolution is often referred to as the agrarian revolution, when farmers and country people moved into the city to work in factories.
The development of the steam engine was an essential early element of the industrial revolution; however, for most of the period of the Industrial revolution, the majority of industries still relied on wind and water power as well as horse and man power for driving small machines. Factory work, small firms and the free market made up the First Industrial Revolution . The need for work made farmers and artisans move to the cities. Although there were jobs to be had in factories, the conditions were often very bad and dangerous, especially for children.
Moving towards the second Industrial Revolution these conditions were improved and working hours were cut down due to new inventions and machines The first Industrial Revolution could not have developed without machine tools, for the enabled manufacturing machines to be made. The manufacture of textile machines is the origin of the modern engineering industry. Machines were built by various craftsmen. Because of the difficulty of manipulating metal and the lack of machine tools, the use of metal was kept to a minimum. Wood framing has the disadvantage of changing dimensions with temperature and the various joints tended to break over time.
As the industrial revolution progressed, machines with metal frames became more common, but they required machine tools to make them economically. Before the invention of machine tools, metals was worked manually using the basic hand tools meaning production was very costly and needed many hours of labor. Railway construction did not begin until the early 19th century. After many of the workers had completed the railways they did not return to their rural lifestyles but instead remained in the cities, providing additional workers for the factories.
Railways helped Britain’s trade enormously, providing a quick and easy way of transport and an easy way to transport mail and news. Management style in the First Industrial Revolution was the owner and manger was the same person. It was also the beginning of integrated organizations. Inventions such as the spinning jenny and the water-powered frame, both of which provided spinning yarn faster, the spinning mule, the power loom and the cotton gin, all helped the manufacture of cotton goods by speeding up the process.
Mass production had begun in the first industrial revolution, along with capitalism. Capitalist people who had their own materials, money and space, bought many machines and stored them in a factory, where hired people worked the whole day manufacturing goods. The factory system had replaced the cottage industry. Steam engines were invented, providing a faster mode of transportation, instead of the use of horses and carriages. With steam engines, cities were able to move farther away from rivers and sources of water, to start cities.
SECOND IR Essentially, although the first Industrial Revolution was revolutionary for countries such as Britain, the Second Industrial Revolution was a true world wide revolution simply because it affected everyone rather than on the small scale. The first Industrial Revolution had forever changed Britain, and later the world. Britain was now ready for another change, as life with machinery had already been assimilated into society. This saw the beginning on the Second industrial revolution around 1880 and went through to the 1920’s.
Whilst Britain still remained in the dominant countries, however, the Second Industrial Revolution saw Germany and the introduction of Big Business in the USA. The main changes compared to the first Industrial Revolution were increased and improved transport and communication such as railways, telephone, cars and enlarged national markets. The rise of American and Germany as dominant countries and science based innovations. The markets became larger and there was an increased need for goods and infrastructure. Management Styles changed and Chandlers three Ms were implemented, Management.
Marketing and manufacturing. Compared to the First Industrial Revolution, the Second Revolution saw many new inventions, and important advances made in the system of mass production. Mass production changed the organization of companies, workers worked and managers managed. Alfred Chandler argued that modern large-scale firms arose to take advantage of the national markets and productive techniques available after the rail network was in place. He found that they prospered because they had higher productivity, lower costs, and higher profits.
The firms created the “managerial class” in America because they needed to coordinate the increasingly complex and interdependent system Compared to the First Industrial Revolution where the owner was the only person in charge, managerial capitalism was introduced in the second Industrial Revolution where the owner was important but dispersed and the manger became more essential to the business. . It was the managements role to strive for optimal resource allocation and coordinate resources. American big business saw firms organized in a new way. Instead of being personally owned they were professionally managed and functionally organized.
The larger size of businesses presented great challenges to managers who administered enormous organizations with many branches and subsidiaries. Advances and innovations in communications and transportation helped decision makers to maintain control. The newspaper was invented and was used to relay commercial information about prices and markets. The telephone became a useful tool for managers to keep in contact with the widely dispersed parts of their businesses. New methods of management were devised that stressed central control, planning, and efficient production methods.
The railway was made possible by the development of the power station. The development of mass transport networks dominated the landscape and the city in developed countries. Innovation in the Second Industrial Revolution saw more science based and codification of knowledge and innovation. Compared to the first Industrial Revolution the government was a strong supporter of innovation throughout the Second Industrial Revolution. Another change from the First Industrial Revolution was the introduction of the assembly line in manufacturing goods, which was introduced by Henry Ford’s Motor vehicles.
Parts were assembled on a moving conveyor belt, and the goods being made were shaped as it moved from one work station to the next. The assembly line greatly increased the speed of manufacture and soon was used in many industries. Fordist growth created a middleclass that can consumer goods. The Second Industrial Revolution marked great progress in the methods of mass production. Human power was replaced by machine power. More and more industries used interchangeable parts and machine tools. Electric power replaced steam power from the First Industrial Revolution in factories; it was cheaper, faster, and more flexible.
It allowed machine tools to be arranged more efficiently. Mass production made usually expensive items, such as shoes, less expensive and easily affordable by lower class and less wealthy people. The Second Industrial Revolution saw new scientific knowledge in medicines and drugs. Medicine in the first Industrial Revolution was not properly developed. Once infection set in, nothing was possible to save the patient. Various diseases couldn’t be stopped or controlled because of limited technology. In the 1850’s however, vaccinations were discovered and administered.
X rays were also discovered and provided doctors with a faster way of diagnosing medical problems. Great new industries were founded on this scientific advance: steel, chemicals, and petroleum benefited from new understandings of chemistry; breakthroughs in the study of electricity and magnetism provided the basis for a large electrical industry. These new industries were larger and more productive than any industries existing before in the First Industrial Revolution. The government was more involved in workers rights throughout the Second Industrial Revolution. The British parliament stepped in and limited the controlled child labour.
Wealthy capitalists wanted the government to stay out of its issues. Many people believed the capitalists would gain to much power and people would be mistreated. Electricity was applied to driving all kinds of machinery as well as powering locomotives and streetcars. Electric lighting quickly spread across the United States and was soon adopted in Europe. The electrical industry was dominated by large companies that developed new products and then manufactured and marketed them. These companies were based in Germany and the United States but sold their goods all over the world. They were the first multinational companies.
The steel and chemical industries used new technology that greatly increased production. The size of factories increased rapidly, employing more workers and using more machinery. These industries integrated all stages of production under a single corporate structure. They bought out competitors and acquired sources of raw materials and retail outlets. Compared to the first industrial revolution the second industrial revolutions saw large scale changes in the organization of production. The second Industrial Revolution witnessed the growth in some industries of huge economies of scale.
The second Industrial Revolution turned the large technological system from an exception to a commonplace. Systems required a great deal of coordination that free markets did not always find easy to supply, and hence governments or other leading institutions ended stepping in to determine railroad gauges, electricity voltages, the layout of typewriter keyboards, rules of the road, and other forms of standardization. The second Industrial Revolution was, in many ways, the continuation of the first. In many industries there was direct continuity. Yet it differed from it in a number of crucial aspects.
First, it had a direct effect on real wages and standards of living which clearly differed significantly in 1914 from 1870. Second, it shifted the geographical focus of technological leadership away from Britain to a more dispersed locus, though leadership remained firmly the monopoly of the industrialized Western world. Finally, by changing the relation between knowledge of nature and how it affected technological practices, it irreversibly changed the way technological change itself occurs. In so doing, what was learned in these years prepared the way for many more Industrial Revolutions to come.