The three perspectives
The Three Perspectives Every interaction that occurs is a product of societal teachings of what is considered deviant. It has a hand in every aspect of a person’s actions and emotions. The teaching of society dictates when it is appropriate to initiate the use of a certain action and express a particular emotion so that no act of deviance occurs. These teachings of deviance are made under this notion to understand people who act different from the social norm. This creates the question, why do these acts of deviance occur or why is this person a deviant?
Society uses the question why, as a basis to create theoretical perspectives regarding deviance and social control to produce an answer relative to that time period. The perspectives are molded around what the majority of society does, the social norm, in order to fix or scare the deviant behavior out, thus the root of social control is created.
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As society progressed and the same question why was ask, perspectives shifted to fulfill the question of the origin of deviant acts. The three key perspectives start with Christian demonology then shift to Classical criminology followed by Medicalization of deviance.
These three theoretical erspectives were each molded out of the social norm associated with that era. These perspectives each highlighted a point of reality in which to build upon in the creation of the perspective and discounted other aspects to generate what is considered deviant. The oldest known of the three theoretical perspectives, Christian Demonology, is the start to answering the question of why deviance is occurring. This question leads to the social control being induced so that society will stay in the hegemonic circle relative to that era. The regulation and differentiation of people is known to begin with Christian Demonology.
The deviance related with this perspective is through sin. Humans succumb to deviance in one of two ways. Act of deviance through the Christian demonology perspective is a two-part road that consists of temptation, followed by possession equating the rest of the rode of deviance” (pfohl 20). While still on the road of temptation the act of demonic deviance behavior is not a forgone conclusion. The option of choice is still lingering, temptations to do acts of evil are present. The demonic deviance rode of temptation is prevalent in the bible. “Through our biblical parents the prevalence of demonic deviance is associated.
Adam and Eve is a prime example of demonic deviance being instituted into a socially excepted teaching, the Christian bible” (Pfohl 21). Eve was placed on the first half of the rode to complete demonic deviance, temptation. Eve was tempted by the serpent to commit an act against God. Eve was still given a choice it was Just under bible is such a pivotal part in inducing the social teachings of throughout society as well as today. (Gender systems of power) The other half of the rode in transition into total deviance is possession. “Possession occurs when people have the inability to control his or her actions” (Pfohl 22).
This occurs in the extremes such as the Salem witch trials. Hundreds of people, predominantly women, were prosecuted for partaking in witchcraft. The actions of witches deviated so far from the hegemonic circle associated with that period that possession was placed as the explanation. This is an example of what is considered devil inhabiting the body and rendering you unable to make choices. The Christian demonology perspective is vague enough to give people an answer to the unexplainable at the time. It answered all forms of deviance from both extremes and everything in the middle ground.
This reasoning behind these forms of deviance in itself creates a form of social control through the placement of a negative connotation of any form that is not present in societies ritualized circle. This will scare people from even attempting to leave the circle. When the idea of performing deviance is brought about then it are associated with the devil. Scare tactics such as public hanging internalizes this fear of deviant acts. God is taught to be this absolute being in whose is our creator. Society says that the deviance committed is a defile of God will. But who really know what God’s will is?
Nobody knows the will of God but an interpretation of a man in power was able to spread his interpretation as absolute in the beliefs of what God wants. This is another facet of social control taken place during Christian demonology. The connection between the Christian demonology and state forms of power is very evident. Due to the time in which this perspective is established the state forms of power is intertwined with the perspective. The separation of church and state is has not come into play, even after the law was put into play it took decades to get rid of the integration of religion in making lawful decision.
With the integration of religion in making it dictated laws that reflected the interpretation of the bible that majority followed. With this thought being instituted in such a wide spread form of social control it will sway people in the way of believing there interpretations of what is the correct and what is considered deviant. With such prevalent expression of what would happen if you were what was considered a deviant, one of two ways would make people follow that hegemonic circle. People would be socialized into believing this is the correct way to go about living.
If people second-guessed this way of living, hen people would be to scared to deviate from the ritualized circle. The consequences of leaving this circle were so prevalent throughout society, such as public hangings. Law is such a strong form of social control to keep the society’s interpretation of what is normal absolute. State forms of power played a huge role in keeping Christian demonology perspective in power through constantly regulating societys thoughts and keeping them in order. Christian demonology leaves the inability to fix a problem it is Just swept under the rug.
With these supernatural forces at play there is no concrete way to fix them because they are seen as Just as the state forms of power are connected through the Christian demonology, a connection is made with gendered power. The dynamics of gender power favors that of the male from the beginning of Christian demonology the male has always been the one in favor. Eve was the one at fault in eating the forbidden fruit, she was the one associated with rode of deviance. Women have been held to a lower standard, the dominance has been held by males.