The transformation in the fortunes of the Nazi part in the years 1930-1933 was largely because of Hitler’s talents as a politician’ how far do you agree with this opinion?
In the early twentieth century the Nazi party (NSDAP) was a small extremist party renowned for it’s use of violence and its beliefs such as anti-Semitism and anti-marxism. The party believed that the treaty of Versailles was wrong and unfair thus needed opposing; this was done through a military coup that ultimately failed due to a lack of support. However between 1930 and 1933 the fortunes of the Nazi party completely changed, this transformation was not only due to Hitler’s talents as a politician but also his personality, the use of propaganda, political manoeuvring, the change in support and the use of the SA and violence.
Prior to 1930 Hitler allied himself to Alfred Hugenberg in opposing the young plan, this aided the parties future growth and political prestige as it provided them with both financial and political support. This allegiance made the party seem less radical and less suspicious, Hitler could use this to his advantage as it supplied them with new respectability and national stature. This change in public views can be seen in election results from the late 1920’s and the early 1930’s; in 1928 the party had 0. 8 million voters, where as in 1932 there was a significant increase as the July elections showed the Nazi party had 13.7 million voters. This change in support was largely due to Hitler’s skills as a politician and the manipulation propaganda provided in aiding him. The organisation of the party allowed Hitler to organise areas into a specific group (Gaul) that was directly answerable to him; this allowed him to target the needs of each individual area and in doing so focus on solving their problems. This use of organisation and political manoeuvring highlighted Hitler’s strength as a politician through his ability to focus on problems that affected the welfare of German society such as unemployment.
Hitler’s personality also aided his ability to be such a skilled politician; his ability to empathise and identify people’s emotions and expectations made Hitler attractive to the German people ‘amid the despair of economic crisis when other parties seemed to lack a sense of direction’. Another use of political manoeuvring and propaganda Hitler implicated was the use of targeting rural areas of Germany; this showed Hitler talents as a politician as targeting the less urbanised or industrial areas meant there was less competition from rivalling parties who were targeting densely populated areas.
On the other hand it was not only Hitler’s talents as a politician that allowed the Nazi prestige to grow but rather the abilities of Goebbels who was Hitler’s propaganda advisor throughout his campaign. Goebbels abilities as propaganda advisor was vital to Hitler becoming chancellor in 1933 and the furthering of Hitler’s political career. The propaganda Goebbels provided emphasised family values and German traditions which proved popular with women and succeeded ion procuring their votes and support.
It was not only these themes that influenced German support but also the many militaristic processions that took place and their (the Nazi’s) general decisive power; typical of the old government. The processions in addition to their emphasis of other themes increased the support for the Nazi party and pulled voters away from the weakening Weimar republic. However Hitler’s personality combined with Goebbels propaganda also proved popular and gained many votes as Hitler was a very charismatic public speaker.
Goebbels also highlighted Hitler’s anti-Semitic policy which proved to be successful, as did his policies on communists/foreigners and the ‘November criminals’. Hitler and Goebbels provided the public with someone to blame and made the Nazi party more attractive. The use of the SA or storm detachment also aided in changing the fortunes of the Nazi party in the early 1930’s. The SA was formed in 1920 and was made up of ex-soldiers who were to provide protection to Nazi speakers.
This protection alone would have had little impact on public views except their ‘propaganda by deed’ approach drew attention to the communist threat and the Nazi determination to destroy it; which proved successful in gaining support from the German people. By 1932 the Nazi party was the biggest in the Reichstag with 37% of the votes and 230 seats, the changes in the Nazi parties fortunes would continue to change over the next two years due to political manoeuvring and Hitler’s abilities as a politician.
Following the July election Hitler requested to become chancellor; however Hindenburg refused and appointed Von Papen instead, subsequently his appointment-ship was based on a coalition with the Nazi party because of their voting power. Hitler would again request to become chancellor after the November elections of 1932, again Hindenburg rejected his proposal and again appointed Von Papen. However Papen’s reappointment as chancellor angered Von Schliecher who had previously been allied with Papen against Hitler;because he himself wanted the chancellorship.
By the latter end of 1932 Papen had lost most of his support and Hindenburg was forced to appoint Von Schliecher in Papen’s stead. In 1933 The changing fortunes of the Nazi party became obvious as Hitler Was made chancellor of Germany. This transformation highlighted Hitler’s talents as a keen politician and the support he had gathered from the German people; his chancellorship came into being not only because of the support or abilities he possessed but also because of Goebbels skills and his allegiance with Von Papen who had sort to aid Hitler’s so he could become vice chancellor.
Throughout the years 1930 and 1933 the transformation of the Nazi parties fortunes was fundamentally due to Hitler’s personality and his talents as a politician; these talents were significantly aided by Goebbels propaganda and the support he was provided with by the disgruntled German people. Towards the latter end of 1932 and the beginning of 1933 saw the birth of Hitler’s chancellorship and emphasised the change in fortunes the Nazi party had been privy too.