The Yalta Conference
The six main issues for the discussion were: the division of Germany, the creation of the United Nations Organization, German war reparations, a “Declaration of Liberated Europe”, Soviet entry into the war against Japan and Pollard’s fate. On Germany, they agreed to divide it into 4 occupation zones administered by British, French, and Soviet forces. Firstly, it was decided to divide it into 3 zones but Stalin agreed that France might have a fourth occupation zone in Germany and in Austria but it would have to be formed out of the American and British zones.Also, Germany would undergo denationalization and magnification. The Allied was to “destroy German militarism and Nazism and to ensure that Germany will never again be able to disturb the peace of the world”; to “break up for all time the German General Staff’; “remove or destroy all German military equipment; eliminate or control all German industry the that could be used for military production; to bring all war criminals to just and swift punishment.
.. Wipe out the Nazi Party, Nazi laws, organizations and institutions, remove all Nazi and militarist influences from public office and from the cultural and economic life of the German people; ND take in harmony such other measures in Germany as may be necessary to the future peace and safety of the world. ” 2. In Yalta Conference realization of the Idea of the new League of Nations has began.And the decision at Teheran, which was held In November, 1943 to organize a United Nations was confirmed, because the Allies needed the interstate organization,which was capable to prevent attempts to change the established borders of spheres of influence. That is why at conferences in Teheran and Yalta the ideology of the United Nations Organization has been formed.
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It was proposed by Roosevelt, that each permanent member of the Security Council, the regional hegemony, be given a veto.The United Nations became a symbol and the guarantor of the post world war order, authoritative and enough effective organization in the resolution of the interstate problems. ‘We are resolved upon the earliest possible establishment with our Allies of a general international organization to maintain peace and security. We believe that this is essential, both to prevent aggression and to remove the political, economic and social causes of war through the close and continuing collaboration of all peace-loving peoples. ” 3.The damage caused by Germany to the Allied nations during the war was also taken into the consideration in the Yalta Conference and Germany was obliged to compensate those countries. The Soviets wanted Germany to pay 20 billion dollars, half of which would go to the Soviet Union.
But this proposal was rejected by Winston Churchill, whose point was that Germany was forced to pay the reparations at the Treaty of Versailles in 1 919 as compensation to the war-ravaged nations of Belgium and France and to pay the Allies 226 billion Researchers. However, these 3 representatives decided to meet later to issues the sum of compensation.Moreover, reparations would be made by getting rid of German national wealth, the annual delivery’ goods and use of German labor. 4. In Yalta the Declaration on the Liberated Europe was signed,which specified the principles of winners policy of in the territories won from the opponents. “The establishment of order in Europe and the re-building of national economic life must be achieved by processes which will enable the liberated peoples to destroy the last vestiges of Nazism and Fascism and to create democratic institutions of their own choice.This is a principle of the Atlantic Charter – the right for all peoples to choose the form of government under which they will live – the restoration of sovereign rights and self-government to those peoples who have been forcibly deprived of them by the aggressor nations.
” The Declaration included, the recovery of the sovereign rights of people on those territories, and also the right of allies to help these people to improve conditions for realization of those rights.In the Declaration it was said: В«The establishment of order in Europe and the rebuilding of national economic life story the last vestiges of Nazism and fascism and to create democratic institutions of their own choice. В» The idea about cooperative help did not work. After the 2 ND World War the world became bipolar and two leading countries the U. S. S. R.
And the U. S. A. Had different ideologies and tried to posses more sphere of influence.. For some years Europe was divided into socialist group and the Western Europe, where Washington, London and Paris tried to resist the communistic temper.What have lead to arms race and developed the Cold War.
5. Roosevelt asked Stalin for Soviet participation against Japan, because he was afraid that if he asked Britain to do so they would like to take a part of the dismembered Japanese Empire. In the exchange for participation of the Soviet army in the war against Japan Stalin received from the USA and Great Britain some benefits. And the destiny of the Far East had been solved. Firstly, the LESSER received Krill islands and Southern Sailing, what were lost in Russian-Japanese war.The southern part of Sailing as well as all the islands adjacent to it shall be returned to the Soviet Union; The Kuris islands shall be handed over to the Soviet Union. Then, Mongolia got the status of the independent state The status quo in Tatterdemalion (The Mongolia People’s Republic) shall be preserved;.
Besides, port Arthur and Chinese Eastern Railroad have also been promised to the Soviet party. The Chinese-Eastern Railroad and the South-Manchuria Railroad shall be jointly operated by the establishment of a joint Soviet-Chinese Company it being understood that the preeminent interests of the Soviet union shall be safeguarded.It was agreed that all claims of the Soviet Union would be fulfilled after the defeat of Japan. 6. The fate of Poland was the most difficultly solved part during the conference. Stalin wanted to keep a part of Poland, because it was more secure. A lot of invaders came to Russia through Poland and to feel protected Stalin decided to keep it occupied.
But in return for that he promised that free and democratic elections would be held. As Stalin said at the conference: “For the Russian people, the question of Poland is not only a question of honor but also a question of security.Throughout history, Poland has been the corridor through which the enemy has passed into Russia. Poland is a question of life and death for Russia. ” Poland lost it’s Eastern land to the Soviet Union,agreed o the Curran Line, but gained it from Germany. “The three Heads of Government consider that the Eastern frontier of Poland should follow the Curran Line with digressions from it in some regions of five to eight kilometers in favor of Poland. They recognize that Poland must receive substantial accessions of territory in the North and West.
They feel that the opinion of the new Polish Provisional Government of National Unity should be sought in due course on the extent of these accessions and that the final delimitation of the Western frontier of Poland should thereafter await the Peace Conference. The creation of a Polish Provisional Government of National Unity was accepted by the “Big Three” and composed of members of both groups:the British and the American. Lubing Poles was supported by the Soviet and the British and American backed London Poles. A new situation has been created in Poland as a result of her complete liberation by the Red Army. This calls for the establishment of a Polish Provisional Government which can be more broadly based than was possible before the recent liberation of the Western part of Poland. The Provisional Government which is now functioning in Poland should therefore e reorganized on a broader democratic basis with the inclusion of democratic leaders from Poland itself and from Poles abroad. This new Government should then be called the Polish Provisional Government of National unity.
In conclusion it is necessary to ask whether the Yalta Conference was a success? How successful was it? And who got out of Yalta as a “winner” of the negotiations? The Yalta Conference was definitely a success. Each of the “big three” came there with their plans and intentions and each of them managed to get at least a part of what they wanted. During that when period they ceded what to do with Germany and discussed the creation of the United Nations Organization, which all of them needed.The United States persuaded the Soviet Union to participate in the was against Japan because, Roosevelt was against British involvement into the war because, he knew that Churchill would demand more colonies for that, so it was easier for him to negotiate with Stalin. It is difficult not to notice that the Soviet Union got much more form the conference than Other participants. It was able to get the defense board from Poland in case on another invasion and at the same time it won he sphere of influence and even when the free and democratic elections were promised the communist regime was established.He also was promised to get certain strategic lands back as an exchange of entering the war against Japan but, if fact the Soviets never entered the war 3 moths after the fall of Germany and 2 days after that the Americans dropped the atomic bomb to Japan without informing the U.
S. S. R. And due that Stalin rushed the declaration about joining the war against Japan. To sum up, it is obviously, that the Yalta Conference played a big part in establishing the readers of Europe and made a great job in negotiations.