Theoretical and Practical Knowledge
Part three, Conceptual Framework of the study, presents the pattern upon which the study is anchored. Part four, Statement of the Problem, gives the general and specific problems to be answered by the researcher. Part five, Assumption and/or Hypothesis enumerates the specific problems and/or what is to be existing. Part six, Definition of Terms, gives the conceptual and operational meaning of the important terms use in the study. Part seven, Significance of the Study, cites from the benefits that could be derived from the results of the study. Part eight, Delimitation of the Study, specifies the scope and coverage of the study.
Background of the Study People are the greatest resource of every country and the most effective agents of change, however, unless the people are equipped with essential knowledge, skills and right attitudes, these capabilities can never be a reality. To become effective agent and manager of change, people must be educated. They must be equipped with the knowledge, skills and right attitudes and values not only to function and live well in society, but also to be creative, productive and useful citizens of the country. These capabilities are most effectively developed in people through education. Camarao, 1991). According to President Ramos (1995), human resources development is a primary concern in the quest for global competitiveness. In fact the government must enhance and sharpen the people’s capabilities in order to cope with fast changing global environment particularly in the field of education. The twenty-first century is upon us, and it is becoming clear with it, will come scientific and technical advances that will continue to change many things. All aspects of our culture are already being affected by the “computer revolution”.
Theoretical and Practical Knowledge Essay Example
People are being continually influenced as technology changes our educational system, economy, social system, government, job opportunities, and creative expressions. Unless you intend to be a hermit, computers will affect you. In order to prepare our selves for this highly technical twenty-first century, individuals need to be technically literate and familiar with the tools of the day-electronics computers. Some experts think that, eventually, the person who does not know how to use a computer will be just as handicapped in performing his or her job as the person today who cannot read.
With this considerations, the researcher are inspired to conduct a study that would determine the theoretical and practical knowledge in computer of the third year Bachelor in Secondary Education students who are majoring Computer Education. Review of Literature A computer is an electronic device designed to manipulate data so that useful information can be generated. It is a machine in many ways similar to other machines. It runs on electricity. It contains number of parts that work together. It is designed to perform certain tasks.
As a tool, the computer has greatly influenced the amounts and kinds of knowledge that people most have. The computer ability to help answer questions, gain information and solve complex problems has created a society dependent upon computer technologies. Today, basic skills in computing are becoming necessary for job equality. Computer literacy is a term use to describe a general understanding of electronic computing. The skills needed to be considered “computer literate” change with each new development in the technology.
Since their introduction in schools in the early 1980s computers and computer software have been increasingly accessible to students and teachers – in classrooms, computers labs, school libraries, and outside of school. By the mid-1990s there were about 4. 5 million computers in elementary and secondary schools throughout the United States. Schools buy Macintosh and IBM – compatible computers almost exclusively, although nearly half of their inventory is composed of computers based on older design such as the Apple lle.
Students spend on the average an hour per week using school computers. Computers can be used for learning and teaching in school in at least four ways. First, learning involves acquiring information. Computers-especially linked to CD-ROMs and videodisks that electronically stores thousands of articles, visual images, and sounds-enable students to search the electronic equivalent of an encyclopedia or a video library to answer their own questions or simply to browse through a maze of fascinating and visually appealing information.
Second, learning involves the progressive development of skills like reading and mathematics-skills that are basic academic enablers. Software called “Computer-Assisted Instructions”(CAI) poses questions to students and compares each answer with a single correct answer. Typically, such programs respond to wrong answer with an explanation and another, similar problem. Sometimes CAI programs are embedded in an entertaining game like context that holds students interest and yet maintains student attention on academic work.
Most CAI programs cover limited materials, but some large-scale, multiyear reading and mathematics curricula have been developed. Third, learning involves the development of a wide variety of analytic competencies and complex understanding. Computers help students attain those goals through software such as word processors (to clarify concepts and examine conjectures in mathematics), electronic painting and computer-assisted drafting (CAD) programs, music composition programs, simulations of social environments and programs that collect data from science laboratory equipment and aid in its analysis.
Finally, a large element in learning is communicating with others – finding and engaging an audience with one’s ideas and questions. Several type of computer software can be used in schools for communications: desktop publishing and image-editing software for making professional-quality printed materials, computer programming languages such as HyperCard for creating interactive computer exercises, and telecommunications software for exchanging ideas at electronic speeds with students in other classrooms all over the world.
In spite of the variety and power of education related computer software, surveys have shown that students are still using school computers primarily within a limited range of the possible computer applications – mainly to practice basic language and math skills and to learn about computers and computer software. This is very similar to how students used the first school microcomputers back in the early 1980s. The major change between the 1980s, and today in computer use has been a reduced emphasis on teaching students to program computers and an increased emphasis on teaching word processing and similar computer applications.
Only a small percentage of secondary school classes in regular subjects (Math, English, and Science) provide students with substantial experience in using computers. More elementary school students use computers than do high school students, but their use is somewhat less extensive. Even high school students experience computers mostly as another set of skills to master, rather than using them productively to accomplish understanding and to demonstrate competence in other subjects.
There are several reasons why most students’ use of school computers is so limited in time and variety. The number of school computers, although still growing, is small compared with the number of students present in schools (roughly one to ten). Schools continue to locate a majority of their computers in specialized, teacher-shared spaces like computer labs in order to enable as many students as possible to have some experience in using computers, but this these practice impedes integrating computers into other learning activities.
Most regular classrooms, if they have any computers at all, have only one or two, which precludes orchestrating computers access for entire classrooms of students. Another problem is the limited capacity of most school computers. Apart from the many older computers in school, even many of the newer models have limited processing power, inadequate computer memory, and a lack of storage capabilities such as hard disk drives and CD-ROM player. Consequently much of the most recently produced, most sophisticated software cannot be used on most schools computers.
In addition, most teacher-with responsibility for teaching five classes of students or for teaching many different subjects-do not have the time to learn how to use a wide variety of types of software in their teaching. The more complex the software, the more difficult it is for teacher to learn to manage its use. Finally, the cost of both computer hardware and software is much greater than the cost of traditional teaching and learning materials.
As a result of the difficulties that schools have had in exploiting the potential of the computer technology, some critics see computer education as merely the latest in a series of unsuccessful attempts to revolutionize education through the use of audio-and visually oriented non print media. For example, motion pictures, broadcast televisions, filmstrips, audio recorders, and video types were all originally heralded for their instructional potential, but each of these ultimately became a minor classroom tool alongside conventional methods.
Supporters believe, however, that computers are a much more powerful learning medium than the instructional devices that preceded them. They cite the essential interactive nature of using computers programmed to provoke decision-making and manipulations of visual environments. Learning tasks can become more individualized, enabling each student to receive immediate feedback. Experts say that having students work collaboratively on computers leads to greater initiative and more autonomous learning.
Proponents also argue that because computers are so pervasive in society and provide access to a world of information through the INTERNET, “computers literacy” is itself a worthy goal. Today, people have made computers and technologies to be apart of their lives. These make peoples’ lives easier and more comfortable. They used these technologies in houses, offices, schools and in many other place and circumstances that need faster, more reliable and accurate results. But then, these high technologies were not constant, they tend to change from time to time. These intensifying changes must be cope up by the people.
And in order to prepare the people to meet the challenges and opportunities of an information and technology-rich world, the course computer education was developed and designed to help students: • Effectively utilize appropriate technologies for the completion of multi step task; • Communicate and interact successfully with others in various environments; • Demonstrate the interpersonal, teamwork, and leadership skills necessary to function in diverse settings; • Manage data from variety of areas to make wise decisions; • Utilize analytical tools in order to understand and implement appropriate problem solving strategies; • Develop career awareness and related skills; The expanded secondary education course of study fosters the responsible use of technology and information to solve problems, to create quality products, and to prepare all students to be lifelong learners and productive citizens’ of the 21st century. Conceptual Framework This study will attempt to verify whether there is a significant difference in the theoretical and practical knowledge in computer of the Bachelor in Secondary Education students major in Computer Education when grouped as to: age, gender, and when taken as a whole.
It will be evaluated in terms of their grades that will be given to them by their instructor and professors in computer. It is, therefore, normal to expect that those who are good theoretically will also perform well in computer manipulation. Since there are other factors that may affect the students’ performance, this expectation remains to be seen. Verification of this can only be done through research rather than speculations. As shown in Figure 1, this study will use dependent and independent variables conceptual model. The model shows how the research will be conducted. Independent Variable Dependent Variable Theoretical Knowledge Age in Computer Gender Practical Knowledge in Computer
Figure 1: A Conceptual Model Showing the Difference Among Variable. Statement of the Problem The purpose of this study is to determine the theoretical and practical knowledge in computer of the third year Bachelor in Secondary Education (BSEd) students, major in Computer Education, of West Visayas State University Pototan Campus when grouped as to age and gender. Specifically this aims to answer the following questions: 1. What is the profile of the BSEd third year computer education students in terms of age and gender? 2. What are the theoretical and practical knowledge in computer of the BSEd third year computer education students when grouped as to age and gender and when taken as a whole? 3.
Are there significant differences in the theoretical and practical knowledge in computer of the computer education students when group as to age and gender and when taken as a whole? Hypothesis 1. There are no significant differences in the theoretical and practical knowledge in computer of the computer education students when grouped as to age and gender and when taken as a whole. Definition of Terms To clarify important terms that will be used in this study the following terms are defined conceptually and operationally. Theoretical Knowledge. Webster pocket dictionary defined theoretical knowledge as understanding the body of abstract ideas or principles, especially as distinguished from practice.
In this study, the term refers to the knowledge of the students on the theories and concepts concerning computer technology and is measured through examinations such as midterm and final examinations. Practical Knowledge. Webster pocket dictionary defined practical knowledge as activities concerned with work or actions; inclined toward actual or useful work. In this study, the term refers to the abilities and skills of student in computer manipulation, wherein, they apply the different theories and concepts in computer they have learned, and it is measured through hands-on test. Age. Webster (1986) defined age as the length of time during which a being or thing has lived or existed. In this study, the term refers to the age of computer education students and lassified into two: 20 years old and below, and 21 years old and above. Gender. Webster pocket dictionary defined gender as a category, such as masculine, feminine, or neuter, into which nouns may be placed in some languages; sexual identity. In this study, the term refers to the gender of computer education students and classified as male and female. Significance of the Study This study is significant to the following: The computer education students are the primary beneficiaries of the study. This may serve as the basis for them to know if they are receiving proper learning process. This may also help them know the level of their theoretical and practical knowledge in computer.
The result of this study will also provide the computer instructors the information if how far do their students learned from them, theoretically and practically. This may also guide them in choosing the most accurate method that they could use in teaching computer subjects. This study will also help the administrator to know if they would be able to produce globally competitive students. This will provide them with a new vision in upgrading the knowledge of the computer education students. Delimitation of the Study This study will focus on the theoretical and practical knowledge in computer of the third year Bachelor in Secondary Education Students major in Computer Education.
The respondents of this study will be the Third Year Bachelor in Secondary Education Students Major in Computer Education of West Visayas State University, Pototan Campus, Pototan, Iloilo during the second semester of the academic year, 2004 – 2005. In this study, the variables to be used in the grouping of students will be the age and gender. Chapter II DESIGN OF THE STUDY Chapter II consists of the five parts: (1) Research Methodology, (2) Subjects, (3) Materials and Instrumentation, (4) Procedure, (5) Statistical Data Analysis Part one, Research Methodology, describes the plan to be employed in the conduct of the study. Part two, Subjects, Presents the respondents and their categories. Part three, Material and Instrumentation, explains the instruments utilized for gathering the data needed for the investigation.
Part four, Procedure, enumerate and explains the steps taken in the conduct of the study. Part five, Statistical Data Analysis, specifies the statistical treatment employed for analyzing the gathered data on the study. Methodology The descriptive method of research will be used in the study. This is defined by Ruiz et al. (1986) as a method, which involves recording, analysis and interpretation of the present nature, composition or processes of phenomena. The focus was on the prevailing conditions on how a person, group or thing behaved or function at present. It often involved some type of comparison and contrast. It told further what existed or what was about a certain educational phenomena.
This method is also appropriate because of the characteristic of the study which according to Best (1973) is a type of research, which describes and interprets what is. It is concerned with conditions that exist, practices that prevail, belief, points of view or attitudes that are held, processes that are going on, effects that are being felt or trends that are developing. Best also stressed that the process of descriptive research goes beyond mere gathering and tabulation of data. It involves an element of interpretation of the meaning or significance of what is described. This description is often combined with comparison or contrast, involving measurement, classification, interpretation and evaluation. Subjects
The subject of this study will be the third year Bachelor in Secondary Education students major in computer education during the academic year 2004 – 2005. There are 45 students who are taking computer subjects in the second semester of academic year 2004 – 2005. The whole population will be taken as a sample. Instruments The instruments that will be used in gathering the data will be the researcher-made personal data inventory, theoretical and practical knowledge in computer. Personal data inventory. Includes the name, age and gender of the respondents. This will be obtained from the office of the school registrar. Theoretical knowledge of students.