Theory Critique Jean Watson
Theory Critique: Theory of “Human Caring” Abigail Peerce Maryville University “Caring is the essence of nursing” (Chantal, 2003, p. 57). Caring is the essence and core of my nursing background and why I chose to take the path towards a career as a professional nurse. The art and science of a postmodern model of transpersonal caring-healing is complementary to the science of medical curing, modern nursing, and medical practices (Chantal, 2003, p. 1) The three major central components of Watson’s theory include the carative factors, transpersonal caring relationship, and the caring occasion or moment. The original 10 carative factors were revised in 1985 to the “Clinical Caritas Process”. Fitzpatrick and Whall (2005) state that “Watson proposes that the clinical Caritas framework is a transformation of the original caring model which emphasizes the merging of spirituality, and evocation of love and caring to provide new paradigm for the millennium” (p. 310).
The transpersonal caring relationship according to Fitzpatrick and Whall (2005) is a “…relationship that moves beyond ego-self and radiates to spiritual, even cosmic concerns and connections that tap into healing possibilities and potentials” (p. 310). Watson proclaims caring is the “moral ideal” in nursing. Creating a transpersonal relationship comes from the bond between two beings that help the ill “…find meaning in illness and suffering in order to restore or promote the person’s harmony” (www. watsoncaringsience. org).
The analysis of consistency allows one to reflect on a theory to better understand the theory relates to practice, research, and education (Fitzpatrick & Whall, 2005). Watson’s model of caring “has been criticized for the incongruent use of abstract terminology in defining the component and relationships within the original human caring theory and the postmodern transpersonal caring-healing paradigm” (Fitzpatrick & Whall, 2005, p. 315). The use of vague terminology makes it difficult to understand and define the components.
Watson theory has become complex with the incorporation of components from spiritualism, philosophy, mysticism, and existentialism. “Accessibility addresses the extent to which empiric indicators can be identified for concept with the theory and how attainable the projected outcomes of the theory are” (Fitzpatrick & Whall, 2005, p. 317). Some of the empirical indicators that have been developed include are the caring efficacy scale, caring assessment report evaluation, and caring behavior checklist.