Theory X and Theory Y
His work is ased upon Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs, in that he grouped the hierarchy into lower-order needs (Theory X) and higher-order needs (Theory Y). He suggested that management could use either set of needs to motivate employees, but better results would be gained by the use of Theory Y, rather than Theory X. These two opposing perceptions theorized how people view human behavior at work and organizational life: Theory X With Theory X assumptions, management’s role is to coerce and control employees.
People have an inherent dislike tor work and will avoid it whenever possible. People ust be coerced, controlled, directed, or threatened with punishment In order to get them to achieve the organizational objectives. People prefer to be directed, do not want responslblllty, and have little or no ambition. People seek security above all else. Theory Y With Theory Y assumptions, management’s role is to develop the potential in employees and help them to release that potential towards common goals.
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Work is as natural as play and rest.
People will exercise self-direction if they are committed to the objectives (they are NOT lazy). Commitment to objectives is a function of the rewards associated with their achievement. People learn to accept and seek responsibility. Creativity, Ingenuity, and imagination are widely distributed among the population. People are capable of using these abilities to solve an organizational problem. People have potential. Intellectual creativity cannot be programmed’ and directed the way we program and direct an assembly line or an accounting department.
This kind of Intellectual contribution to the enterprise cannot be obtained by giving orders, by traditional supervisory practices, or by close systems of control. Even conventional notions of productivity are meaningless with reference to the creative intellectual effort. Management has not yet considered in any depth what Is involved in managing an organization heavily populated with people whose prime contribution consists of creative intellectual effort. ” from Douglas McGregor’s essay, New Concepts of Management. I OF3 Theory X managers are micro-managers, whereas Theory Y managers believe in empowering employees.
SmartNotes fig. 1 History of Motivation Timeline of motivation theory KEY POINTS McGregor’s Theory X surmises that workers need to be constantly watched and instructed what to do. Managers who believe this philosophy assume that the verage staff member dislikes work, avoids work whenever possible, and work is only motivated by money, position, and punishment. McGregor’s Theory Y emphasizes that staff are self-disciplined and would like to do the Job themselves. The team members are active and supportive in our work climate and find the work itself rewarding.
Adopting this philosophy will produce self-direction towards goals without coercion or control. It’s quite rare to find a purely Theory X or Theory Y orientation in an organization. There is usually a blend of each with a tendency to lean towards one or the other. TERMS micromanage To manage, direct, or control a person, group, or system to an unnecessary level of detail or precision. empower To give someone more confidence and/or strength to do something, often by enabling them to increase their control over their own life or situation. incentive Something that motivates, rouses, or encourages.
EXAMPLES A Theory X type manager would be more inclined to use tangible rewards as incentives. They assume their authority is resented and adopt regulations that are designed to enforce compliance. A Theory Y type manager acts in a way that communicates trust and a belief in staff member’s good intentions. They assume that staff members want to work towards organizational goal attainment and work to set up an environment that enhances growth. Rate these SmartNotes: Full text Theory X McGregor’s Theory X is the root cause of micromanagement.
The concept surmises workers need to be constantly watched and instructed what to do. Managers who believe this philosophy assume that the average staff member dislikes work and avoids work whenever possible. The work is only motivated by money, position, and punishment. In addition, the worker avoids increased responsibility and seeks to be directed. The acceptance of Theory X will result in an uthoritarian management style over the team and allowing for little collaboration or even participation in decision making.
Leaders (managers) who adhere to Theory X assume that the average person: Dislikes work and attempts to avoid it centered and, therefore, does not care about organizational goals Resists change Act irresponsibly (Weinbach, 2008) designed to enforce compliance. Theory Y McGregor’s Theory Y is the root cause of employee empowerment. This concept emphasizes that staff are self-discipline and would like to do the Job themselves. The team members are active and supportive in our work climate and find the work itself ewarding. Adopting this philosophy will produce self-direction towards goals without coercion or control.
Teammates will seek opportunities for personal improvement and self-respect Leaders (managers) who adhere to Theory Y assume that: Work is a natural activity for people. People will be self-directed to meet their work objectives if they are committed to them. People will be committed to their objectives if rewards are in place that address higher needs, such as self-fulfillment. People will seek responsibility. Most people can handle responsibility, because creativity and ingenuity are common n the population (Weinbach, 2008).