Thirty Years War Essay Research Paper The
Thirty Years War Essay, Research Paper
The causes of the Thirty Years War can be traced as far back as the Renaissance period. It was during the Renaissance that such ideals as secularism, humanitarianism, individuality, rationalism and above all else secularism were first apparent in chief watercourse society. These thoughts led to the Protestant reformation, which is an even more direct cause of the war. The split of the Catholic Church, as a consequence of the Protestant reformation left Europe in a province of spiritual convulsion and pandemonium. The gradual addition in intolerance and spiritual provincialism that coincided with the add-on of new faiths and even more diverseness has been marked as the chief cause of the Thirty Years War. The effects of the war would turn out to be lay waste toing to most of Europe, evidenced by the crisp bead in population, but it was particularly lay waste toing to Germany.
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However, there were some states and organic structures of people that emerged from the struggle improved such as France, Sweden, and the faith of Calvinism.
There were many territorial and dynastic issues that figured in the eruption and behavior of the war every bit good, but it is believed that these factors did non go of import until the in-between phases of the war. The territorial and dynastic causes, which go manus in manus, did nevertheless, cause the war to go on longer than it most probably would hold if faith had been the lone motivation. The extent of spiritual motivations therefor is debated, but can non be dismissed.
The immediate causes of the war began with the opposition and eventual rebellion of Protestant Lords in Bohemia, due to the spiritual intolerance mentioned before, which was under Hapsburg domination, against the Catholic male monarch Ferdinand. The grounds and causes for its spread throughout Europe include the constitutional infirmity of the Holy Roman Empire, the inability of the German provinces to move in concert, and the aspirations of other European powers. These were the causes that would finally be responsible for the war lasting every bit long as it did.
The political motivations became more and more prevailing when Sweden entered the war to assist the Protestant cause. Sweden did non come in the war for spiritual grounds at all ; they were looking to derive land. Finally it seemed that faith was wholly forgotten and abandoned as a cause when Catholic France and Protestant Sweden joined forces against the
Catholic Hapsburgs. France was worried that the Hapsburgs were going excessively powerful so they decided to asseverate their influence into the war.
The consequences and effects of the war and the two peace pacts were extremely important. France replaced Spain as the greatest power in Europe. With Sweden, France had blocked the Habsburg attempts to beef up their authorization in the Empire. At Westphalia, the right of the single provinces within the Empire to do war and conclude confederations was recognized. In theory every bit good as in fact, the most of import of these provinces became virtually independent, and German integrity was postponed for more than two centuries. The Empire was farther dismembered by the acknowledgment of the independency of Switzerland and the seven northern states of the Netherlands. Two new powers emerged in northern Germany. France received most of Alsace by the Treaty of Westphalia, and by the Treaty of Pyrenees parts of Flanders and Artois in the Spanish Netherlands and lands in the Pyrenees.
The spiritual colony at Westphalia confirmed the predomination of Catholicism in southern Germany and of Protestantism in northern Germany. The rule accepted by the Peace of Augsburg of 1555 that Catholic and Lutheran princes could find the faith practiced in their district was maintained, and this privilege was extended to include the Calvinists every bit good.
The Austrian Habsburgs had failed in their attempts to increase their authorization in the Empire and to eliminate Protestantism, but they emerged from the war stronger than earlier. In Bohemia, they had stamped out Protestantism, broken the power of the old aristocracy, and declared the crown hereditary in the male line of their household. With Bohemia now steadfastly in their appreciation and with their big group of bordering districts, they were ready to spread out to the E in the Balkans, to the South in Italy, or to interfere one time more in the Empire.
The existent also-rans in the war, nevertheless, were the German people. Over 300,000 had been killed in conflict. Millions of civilians had died of malnutrition and disease, and roving, undisciplined military personnels had robbed, burned, and looted about at will. Most governments believe that the population of the Empire dropped from about 21,000,000 to 13,500,000 between 1618 and 1648. Even if they exaggerate, the Thirty Years War remains one of the most awful wars in history.