For their part, the poor criticized the rich that they are deteriorated to abject misery and could not bear children. (Extract Appian Roman History 10) At this point, Tiberius expressed concerns of the problems. He gave a speech for the Italians about them suffering because of shortage of men, poverty and taxes. Furthermore, to ensure the poor were protected from the rich, he proposed the act of “forbid sale”(New farmers are not allowed to sell their farms to the rich). This shows his solitude for the common people is noticeable.
Security of Rome- Man power (population related) “ He was carried away above all by the benefits of the plan, because he thought that nothing better or more splendid could possibly happen to Italy, and gave no consideration to the difficulties surrounding it. ” (Appian Roman history, Extract 11) Tiberius brought up his arguments when the voting approaches, through his formidable speaking skills he inspired the rich to consider the “Hopes for the future” of giving lands to the poor, so they are able to raise children for more “manpower and conquest” Through his, we are able to see he aroused the poor, for everyone to feel their pain and their desperate situation.
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From this, many people agreed to help. From this, Tiberius motive was from “ his utter despair at witnessing.. The wretched physical state of the land.. And the plight of the peasants. ” (J. M. Riddle (ed. ): 31 Inspired by more self-interested political motives * It was alleged by some, that Gracchus had deposed the other tribunes (A guess based on their invisibility) [It was alleged by others that he was [seizing power by making himself a tribune for the following year without election]
Plutarch Gracc Ex. 8 His formidable adversary, Spurius Postumius with loyal followers had by far, surpassed Tiberius in popularity and influential powers over Rome. Jealous and devoted to outdo him, Tiberius strongly believed by proposing a inspiring political scheme, he will gain much more general admiration and fame than Spurius. (Plutarch Gracc Ex. 8) Another motivating reason to propose the agrarian bill. (This can link to Cornelia; kill two birds with one stone) Revenge? power? There is no doubt Tiberius was a kind-hearted man and cares for the common people.
However, there is evidence of his family’s name was degraded and almost lost his life because the senate “shamefully repudiated” the treaty of terms that will spare the lives of the captured roman soldiers by the Spaniards. Tiberius barely escaped, and was extremely resentful. (Scullard, The Gracchi pg. 24). This can be seen as one of Tiberius’s motive to become a demagogue, to have his revenge on the senates after the betrayal. Also, it can contribute to the fact of Tiberius using his legal power of tribune to mask his underlying motive of revenge by challenging the senates.
The large landowners, who are the senators, will suffer the most because of the proposal. Tiberius passed his bill to the people without letting the senates know; from his conscience he believes the senates will repudiate it. However, he had many strong friends in the senate and others may consider for the better of the community. The actions of Tiberius made the senates detest him and “ was unwilling to acquiesce in his blatant disregard of its traditional rights. ” (The Gracchi pg. 26).
When, Octavius unexpectedly vetoed, Tiberius failed to persuade Octavius, he proposed an extreme act of formal deposition for Octavius and passed on the agrarian bill (Appian R. Hist. Ex. 12). From this, we can see Tiberius was impatience and imprudent in many of his deeds. Even though his actions did not break, he transgressed the traditional accordance and display “undue hastiness and folly” (The Gracchi, 28). Furthermore, Tiberius requested for re-election. Senates felt that he was going to be a dictator based on the Athenian pattern.
Even though he has enough personal leadership in his agrarian scheme to stay for the second year, many republican felt he was growing too formidable. From this, we can justify Tiberius is over confident of himself and did not consider the consequences of his actions on Octavius and the re-election. Tiberius demanded the revenue from the death of Attalus and pushing forward his agrarian bill without the consultation of the Senate can surely be seen as a aggressive strike on the powers of Senate. Many senates saw Tiberius gaining sole powers and fame.
Furthermore, Before Tiberius sought re-election, he strengthens and re-enforces his position whilst deteriorates and cripple the senate’s power, by introducing a set of new procedures. These includes; decrease amount of time spent on military service, the common people are able to appeal the verdicts of the judges who were the senates only, until Tiberius propose a new measure to allow equites to join in. The senate’s powers were diminished since they only have half the place as judges and eventually a weak army to defend them .
This is clear, Tiberius actions is confront and crush the senate and make them hopeless for what they have done to Tiberius’s family and the repudiation of Numantia treaty which almost cost his life. Family Glory- ( Plutarch Gracc Ex. 8) Tiberius’s mother, Cornelia was no doubt to be partly blamed for Tiberius death, due to the fact that she frequently discredit and rebuke Tiberius about the romans mentioning her as only “ mother-in-law of Scipio” and not mother of the Gracchi. (Plutarch Gracc Ex. 8) Tiberius felt his mother berated him for not accomplishing any achievements.
Thus, the romans consequentially disrespected and showed contempt to Tiberius and his brother, and above all brought disgrace to his family. Because of Cornelia, Tiberius was forced to gain family glory and challenge the high-class romans, especially the senates on insulting his family. Evidently, his mother attitude towards Tiberius may have contributed Tiberius selfish actions and his ill-considered deeds to fulfill his mother’s demand of family glory. The importance of Gracchus attempts- Furthermore, Tiberius requested for re-election will result him as a dictator based on the Athenian pattern.
Even though he has enough personal leadership in his agrarian scheme to stay for the second year, many republican felt he was growing too formidable. From this, we can justify Tiberius is over confident of himself and did not consider the consequences of his actions on Octavius and the re-election. According to Plutarch, Gracchi as men who tried to exalt the people and to restore a just and honorable civil polity, which had lapsed after a long time, and thereby incurred the hatred of the nobles, others suggest the main purpose of Tiberius was to restrain the vast powers of the oligarchy and put the effect of democratic reform. Galvanize into life the ancient democratic institution of Greece” and it was derived by Hellenic ideas of popular sovereignty from their Greek teachers. Tiberius was essentially a conservative statesman who wishes to rebuild the army by a system of small land grants, which would at the same time curb the growing slave menace. The army was then to support and defend the great empire. From this, the senates argue that Tiberius wished to establish a tyranny or a monarchy may be set aside as political propaganda.
Questions that further prove Tiberius was being ill-considered: IF the small holder were drafted, what would become of his farm? How would the father cultivate his fields without their aids? Little evidence that Tiberius took much interest in these fundamental aspects of the problem. Nor did he ponder the fat of slaves, if the bill were to succeed; were the slaves of the large landowners to be emancipated without prospect of employment? Contest between Tiberius boundless ambitions and the senate’s selfishness were putting Rome at risk.
When Tiberius asked for king of Pergamum funding, the senates disapprove and they are more cautious than ever, because they sense the actions of Tiberius was a clear challenge to their well-being and authority. Deposition of Octavius, suggest Tiberius have the power to introduce any power of his own. Feared that his scheme and his life will be destroyed. (dishonored and violated the rules of tribune) Tiberius was concerned with the diminishing strength of army and the government might face the peril of countless of slaves mutiny.
Tiberius clearly did see evidence of the disappearance of the famers eligible for service as soldiers and identified a crucial socio-economic problem Hoi Feb intake 2012. Source (Plutarch Gracc. Ex. 8) Ex 10- Tiberius issued an order prohibiting all other magistrates from making any political decision until the people had cast their vote either for or against the law. Ex 13, These were Tiberius himself, Appius Claudius, father in law and Guius Gracchus his brother. ( family glory)
Ex15, Tiberius saw that his treatment of Octavio’s had offended, not only the aristocratic part, but even the people, since it was generally felt that the tribunate ha a peculiar dignity, an inviolability, which had been persevered until that, but now been destroyed. He therefore delivered a speech to the people in which h he said “ …) Go look Ex 16 very important ask Tiberius programmed was designed to cripple the power of the Senate in every possibly way, and it was inspired by the motives of anger and party politicos rather than by consideration of justice and the common good. Ex 17 too.