Tino VillanuevaS DayLong Day Essay Research Paper
Tino Villanueva? S? Day-Long Day? Essay, Research Paper
5 May 2000
& # 8220 ; Day-Long Day & # 8221 ;
Title: & # 8220 ; Day-Long Day & # 8221 ;
Abstraction: This paper is a critical analysis of Tino Villanueva & # 8217 ; s verse form, & # 8220 ; Day-Long Day & # 8221 ; . It examines the work with respect to its enunciation, sentence structure, indication and intension, imagination, metaphor and simile, tone, rime and metre, allusion, and subject. ( 8.5 pages ; 5 May 2000 ) .
Day-Long Day & # 8221 ;
Tino Villanueva & # 8217 ; s & # 8220 ; Day-Long Day & # 8221 ; is a singular work, for it captures in 34 short lines the choler, defeat, and inhuman treatment of the life of Mexican migratory workers in Texas. The searing heat, the backbreaking and painful work of picking cotton & # 8212 ; all of it is here in graphic item.
& # 8220 ; Diction & # 8221 ; refers to the pick of words an writer uses that distinguishes his & # 8220 ; voice & # 8221 ; from everyone else & # 8217 ; s. That is, if you pick up a book by Charles Dickens, you don & # 8217 ; Ts have to read really far before you know without looking who the writer is & # 8212 ; he has a alone manner.
Much of that manner depends on enunciation, which are the words a author chooses to utilize and the manner he constructs sentences. In Villanueva & # 8217 ; s instance, he uses many Spanish phrases, so that we know he is a Spanish-speaker.
He besides uses sophisticated linguistic communication and dramatic buildings, so that we know he is educated, even though he is a field manus:
& # 8220 ; Daydreams boundary line on sun-fed hallucinations,
eyes and custodies automatically know apart
White of cotton from field of vision. & # 8221 ;
His pick of the word & # 8220 ; know apart & # 8221 ; instead than & # 8220 ; take & # 8221 ; , every bit good as the phrase & # 8220 ; field of vision & # 8221 ; , indicate a high grade of intelligence. Whether this is the intelligence of the poet or the field manus is immaterial at this point, for Villanueva has described the scene so vividly that we believe he is one with the other workers. The impact of the verse form is non lessened if we find that he is non.
& # 8220 ; Syntax & # 8221 ; is the manner in which words are arranged to organize sentences. Construction is another good indicant of intelligence, for it can be used to heighten the significance of words. In the lines above, Villanueva might hold said & # 8220 ; & # 8230 ; custodies and eyes automatically find the cotton in the blaze of the sun. & # 8221 ; Alternatively, he says & # 8220 ; & # 8230 ; manus and eyes automatically discriminate whiteness of cotton from field of vision. & # 8221 ; The words & # 8220 ; know apart & # 8221 ; and & # 8220 ; field of vision & # 8221 ; are really sophisticated and once more, bespeak a high grade of intelligence at work here. But they are besides loaded with other significances: & # 8220 ; know apart & # 8221 ; non merely means to take, it besides carries an ugly significance, as in & # 8220 ; know apart against & # 8221 ; . Likewise & # 8220 ; field of vision & # 8221 ; reinforces the image of the workers in the field under the blaze Sun.
III Denotation and Connotation
& # 8220 ; Denotation & # 8221 ; means the direct and expressed significance of a word ; & # 8220 ; intension & # 8221 ; is an indirect mention, extra qualities suggested by a term in add-on to the primary significance ( i.e. , & # 8220 ; politician & # 8221 ; has different intensions from & # 8220 ; statesman & # 8221 ; . )
In & # 8220 ; Day-Long Day & # 8221 ; , Villanueva uses really small indication, nor make his words carry different intensions. He works chiefly in metaphors, simile, imagination and symbols.
Imagery is present when a poet entreaties to our five senses. Imagery besides includes such things as the esthesiss of heat and force per unit area.
In this work, the most powerful image, the dominant one, is the heat. It is mentioned over and over once more, either straight or indirectly, as: & # 8220 ; sun-fed hallucinations & # 8221 ; , & # 8220 ; Un Hijo del Sol, & # 8221 ; & # 8220 ; sweat day-long drippage & # 8221 ; , & # 8220 ; Sun blocks out the sky, suffocates the lone zephyr & # 8221 ; , & # 8220 ; summer-long rows of cotton & # 8221 ; , & # 8220 ; sweat-patched denims & # 8221 ; , & # 8220 ; the blast of grades & # 8221 ; , & # 8220 ; sweltering toward Saturday & # 8221 ; , & # 8220 ; the day-long twenty-four hours is sunstruck. & # 8221 ;
The full verse form is both a anthem to the Sun and a expletive at it.
V Metaphor and Simile
More definitions: a metaphor is a figure of address which compares two incompatible things without the usage of a connective term ; a simile compares things of different categories through the usage of a connection such as & # 8220 ; as & # 8221 ; , & # 8220 ; like & # 8221 ; & # 8220 ; seems & # 8221 ; or others. & # 8220 ; My love is like the ruddy, ruddy rose & # 8221 ; is a simile ; & # 8220 ; the drape of dark & # 8221 ; is a metaphor.
I will acknowledge that similes and metaphors are slippery small Satans to catch. In this work, the 1 that stands out most clearly for me is & # 8220 ; third-generation timetable. & # 8221 ; This is a linking of two entirel
Y incompatible footings. “Third-generation” refers to a household, while a “timetable” is a agenda, most frequently used in connexion with happening out the times of trains.
Here, I believe he is stating that the household had hoped to interrupt out of the rhythm of poorness and migratory working by holding the grandson ( the 3rd coevals ) go to school, but that program ( the & # 8220 ; timetable & # 8221 ; ) is now upset, because the foreman wants them to pick more cotton, even if it means giving the male child & # 8217 ; s instruction and the household & # 8217 ; s dreams of acquiring him out of the Fieldss. The lines that make this clear are:
& # 8220 ; & # 8217 ; From el amo desgraciado, & # 8217 ; a sentence:
I wan na bale a twenty-four hours, and the male child here
Don & # 8217 ; t hafta go to school. & # 8217 ; & # 8221 ;
& # 8220 ; El amo desgraciado & # 8221 ; means & # 8220 ; the ugly foreman & # 8221 ; . Obviously the adult male doesn & # 8217 ; t care what becomes of the kid or the household, all he wants is to run into his quota & # 8212 ; surpass it it possible & # 8212 ; and if that means the kid has no hereafter except as a field manus, the foreman couldn & # 8217 ; t attention less. He is traveling to stand in the manner of the male child & # 8217 ; s instruction for the interest of the harvest.
& # 8220 ; Tone & # 8221 ; in written literature is slightly obscure. It by and large means the manner in which the poet hopes the reader will & # 8220 ; hear & # 8221 ; his words. Since he can non talk aloud to us, he chooses words that will convey non merely his direct significance, but how he feels about his topic. I said that the tone of this verse form is angry, and I believe it is, because that is what I feel when I read it. Surely the blaze Sun, the hurting in the custodies and dorsums of the choosers, the hopelessness of the male child who won & # 8217 ; t be traveling to school, all these add up to a bleak and unpleasant state of affairs. But there is an implicit in feeling about it that indicates to me these people know they are being abused, and although they have been treated severely for three coevalss, I get a sense that they are ready to arise.
Poetry is likely the most subjective of all the linguistic communication humanistic disciplines, so each reader will take something different off with them. This is what I felt was traveling on under the surface, perchance because of the usage of the strong & # 8220 ; ugly & # 8221 ; to depict the foreman.
VII Rhyme and Meter
& # 8220 ; Meter & # 8221 ; refers to the form of stressed and unstressed sounds in the verse form ; when the work is read aloud, the emphasiss combine to organize forms that repetition. In this work, nevertheless, there are no such emphasiss, or reiterating forms. It is a free poetry verse form.
Similarly, it has no rime. Rhyme is the repeat of sounds that are indistinguishable: & # 8220 ; the fat cat sat on the mat & # 8221 ; . Villanueva does non utilize rime, possibly because it has a distancing consequence. When we read a verse form that rhymes, we frequently get caught up in the rime strategy and so go cognizant that we are reading poesy. Villanueva wants us to stay in the field with the migratory workers, and so does non interpose the excess bed of distance between them and us.
An & # 8220 ; allusion & # 8221 ; is an & # 8220 ; indirect mention & # 8221 ; or & # 8220 ; insouciant reference & # 8221 ; ; i.e. , the talker alluded to the budget amendment in the class of his comments. In & # 8220 ; Day-Long Day & # 8221 ; , there are no such insouciant references. Everything is immediate, direct, and sensational ( as in we can experience the esthesis of the heat, the hurting, the letdown, the bitterness ) . The work is non insouciant in any sense.
The chief subject of the verse form is the hopelessness of the migrators & # 8217 ; status. They work as they do because that is all they know. This is the 3rd coevals to work in the Fieldss in the sweltering Texas summer, and their hope for a better life & # 8212 ; or at least for a better life for the male child & # 8212 ; is dashed by the & # 8220 ; ugly & # 8221 ; foreman who would instead hold the kid working in the Fieldss than traveling to school.
The workers dream reveries that are non far removed from heat-induced hallucinations, and their lone alleviation is a drink of H2O from an old jug. They spend their lives in an eternal rhythm of wretchedness and poorness:
& # 8220 ; row-trapped,
cranking through summer-long rows
of cotton & # 8221 ;
This work is all they know, and they are figuratively trapped by their ignorance as they are literally trapped by the closely-spaced rows of cotton workss.
This is a fantastic verse form. The rubric itself is fascinating, as it can be read in many different ways: it & # 8217 ; s a long twenty-four hours, to be certain, but is it merely a twenty-four hours long? Or is this the life that these workers will take everlastingly? Villanueva tells us that they will ne’er get away, and in so making, reveals a powerful voice in the literary universe.