Traditional and Modern Instructional Materials

7 July 2016

Learning English grammar encompasses a wide range and time of study. It is not easy for a single student to learn this sort of subject. However, there are several instructional materials that can be used in learning English Grammar, and these are- Traditional and Modern instructional materials. Some people say that learning can be learned through the use of visual- aids and as a matter of fact, 75% of learning can be acquired through the sense of sight. Nowadays, students are very much particular when it comes to the teacher’s visual- aids. Sometimes, they find the discussion boring if the teacher didn’t provide their visual- aids.

People learn in different ways. Some people are extraordinarily good at retaining information fed to them orally and others absorb and retain a great deal of information that they’ve read. Others need visuals stimulants or cues to facilitate learning. Repetition works for a lot of person as well. Most people however require a combination of the above methods and so as instructional material- which can encompass audio visual materials, book, and even practical application- are excellent aids for assuring that students have best possible opportunity to retain the information being given to them.

Traditional and Modern Instructional Materials Essay Example

On the other hand, in the field of learning English grammar, how these instructional materials affect the learner’s knowledge? Traditional instructional materials are the materials traditionally used by the teachers to their students in teaching their lessons. It includes the use of textbook, chalk, board, marker, charts and flash cards. These are the common materials that help the teachers to explain the lesson clearly. In teaching English grammar using these kinds of materials, the lesson is more understandable because the teacher can explain the target lesson clearly through the use of different writing and pointing materials.

The different grammatical rules and even the concepts can be easily explained. On the other side, Modern Instructional Materials like overhead projectors, slideshows, videos, and different presentation software are resources of the teachers that are more modernized and high- technology than the traditional one. It includes how a specific topic is discuss comfortably and interesting. Learning English grammar through this sort of materials is preferable to the learners that are bored on traditional visual- aids. Instructional materials play significant roles in the teaching and learning process.

Instructional material management is a crucial component of the entire classroom control and management, this is because the excitement usually generated but the introduction of instructional material can generate a lot of noise, undue movement of students, chairs and tables but make the student participate. The instructional materials and aid are used to supplement and complement the teacher verbal effort. One of the major problems of student today is their weakness in English grammar. There are a number of students that find English hard so grammar for them is not easy to be learned.

Some are having their online tutorials, others are personal tutors but, still, grammar is hard for them. Fourth year students of Pag- asa National High School are experiencing this kind of problem so, the researchers conducted a research observation about how instructional materials affect their learning in English grammar. Statement of the Problem This study aims to find out the effect of instructional materials in the learning of English grammar of the fourth year students of Pag-asa National High School S. Y.

2013- 2014. Specifically, this study sought to answer the following research questions: What are the effects of traditional instructional materials in learning English grammar? Charts Flashcards Graphs Hand- outs Boardwork What are the effects of modern instructional materials in learning English grammar? Overhead projectors Presentation softwares Slideshows Videos E- library Is there any significant difference between Traditional and Modern Instructional materials in learning English grammar? Statement of the Hypothesis

There is no significant difference between the Traditional Instructional Materials and Modern Instructional Materials in the learning of English grammar of fourth year students of Pag-asa National High School S. Y. 2013- 2014. There is no significant relationship between the instructional materials and learning English grammar. Scope and Limitation of the Study This study focused mainly on the instructional materials- the traditional and modern which are being used in the teaching and its effect in the learning of English grammar of the fourth year students of Pag- asa National High School S.

Y. 2013- 2014. Section No. of Respondents Population Test-retest Sample Population Gemini 39 2 27 Pisces 45 3 32 Sagittarius 48 3 34 Virgo 38 2 27 Total 170 10 120 Significance of the Study The importance of this study is to know the grammar rules and vocabulary in the target language using the modern and traditional instructional materials to the fourth year students of Pag-asa National High School. This study will also help students to see how these teaching instructional materials affect their learning about English grammar.

This study will serve as their guide to know the preferred materials by the students that will provoke the interest of the learners. To the students, the use of instructional materials in learning English grammar will act as a motivating factor for them to put their interest in English language classes. To the community of teachers in the country, the result of these studies can help them determine which type of instructional materials is more effective in teaching English grammar.

Lastly, to future researchers who have interest in studying factors that affect English grammar, this study can serve as related literature for further studies. Definition of Terms For purpose of this investigation, the following words are defined and explained. These definitions are the operational meanings of the terms as they are used in this study. Charts- a graphical representation of data, which the data is represented by symbols, such as bars in a bar chart, lines in a line chart, or a slices in a pie chart.

Electronic Learning- a system of electronic media and information and communication technologies. Electronic Library- a digital collection of stored electronic media formats accessible via computers. Flashcards- a set of card bearing information as word or numbers, on either both side used in classroom drills or private study. Graphs- are theoretical representation of a set of objects where some pairs of the object are connected by links. Handouts- refer to materials handed out for presentation purposes or to add charitable gift among other things.

Instructional materials- are kind of tools or equipment can help effectively the instructor in teaching. Objects and models- are three dimensional representations of concepts that students are learning. Overhead projectors- a very basic reliable form of projector, it displays image onto a screen or wall. Presentation software- sometimes called “presentation graphics” is a category of application program. Slide shows- use to create sequences of words and pictures that tell a story or help support a speech or public presentation of information.

Videos- are the technologies of electronically capturing, recording, processing, storing, transmitting and reconstructing a sequence of still images representing scenes in motion. Theoretical Framework As in need to give a clear view about the effectiveness of instructional materials in the field of learning English Grammar, some theories were searched. These theories are related to the topic of this research for it focuses in instructional materials. In fact, as stated in these theories, different teachers show how they used different technologies as well as textbooks while they are teaching their students.

Some theories have been designed to provide guidelines intended to assist in the presentation of information in a manner that encourages learner activities that optimize intellectual performance. Robert Smith, et al. (2009), Differentiated instruction theory as cited in Different Instruction in Schools, is the process of ensuring that a student learns, how he/ she learns the lesson, and how does the students demonstrate what he/ she has learned is much for that students’ readiness level, interest and referred mode of learning through research paper, roleplay, podcast, diagram, poster, etc.

This theory is a key to differentiation on finding how students learn and displays their learning that meets their specific needs with the use of differentiated instruction. Smith’s theory has a relevance to the present study because the use of different instructional materials play an important role in the student’s learning process. Both study has a great contribution to the learners. Brian Timmons teaches Translation and Editing of Text (2008) at Bergenfield High School in Bergenfield, New Jersey.

He cited, “The most beneficial workshop I attended on Translation was a Conference on Theory of Independent Study offered by the College Board. While we only briefly address the implementation of technology in our courses, the instructor, Richard Zweier, was very tech-savvy and utilizes a laptop and projector with a multimedia presentation for our class. Technology is a wonderful way to differentiate instruction. Using ear training software, such as, Australia, allows students to move independently at their own pace while still benefiting from the coaching of the teacher.

” This theory ascertains that the use of information and communication technologies helps the students to work independently when it comes to text translation. Cognitive load theory (Dosher 2008) as cited in Dynamics of Cognitive Load Theory is a theoretical notion with an increasingly central role in the educational research literature. The basic idea of cognitive load theory is that cognitive capacity in working memory is limited, so that if a learning task requires too much capacity, learning will be hampered.

This theory proves the direct relationship between cognitive memory and cognitive knowledge as stated in its role in educational research literature. The theory can also become a basis in relation to lesson load in teaching literature accompanied with discussions in grammar. Intrinsic cognitive load (Bannert 2006; Sweller et al. ) load relates to the difficulty of the subject matter. More speci? cally, material that contains a large number of interactive elements is regarded as more difficult than material with a smaller number of elements and/or with a low interactivity.

Low interactivity material consists of single, simple, elements that can be learned in isolation, whereas in high interactivity material individual elements can only be well understood in relation to other elements give the example of a vocabulary where individual words can be learned independently of each other as an instance of low interactivity material, and grammatical syntax or the functioning of an electrical circuit as examples of high interactivity material.

This implies that regardless of what instructional strategy, methods and strategies to be used in achieving linguistic competency, the biggest factor is still attributed on the level of difficulty of the lesson. Conceptual Framework IVDV Figure 1. Hypothesized Relationship Between Variables Figure 1. Paradigm of the Independent and Dependent Variables on the effects of traditional and modern instructional in learning English grammar of the senior students of Pag- asa National High School

CHAPTER II REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES This chapter presents related literature and studies which were reviewed by the researcher as they may pose similarities, differences and impact in the present study. Foreign Literature Rezvani (2011) aimed to investigate on the effectiveness of using web and print-based materials in teaching grammar to Iranian EFL learners.

In his study entitled “On the Effectiveness of Using Web and Print-based Materials in Teaching Grammar to Iranian EFL Learners, he found out that integration of web-based materials in the EFL classrooms (at least as supplement to print-based materials) can help motivate and enhance learner’s mastery of English grammar. The study has implications for EFL practitioners and materials developers. The study shows a direct relationship between traditional and modern instructional materials as both web and print-based materials in teaching grammar used for the Iranian students are both considered as traditional and modern instructional materials.

In addition to this, like the Iranian, it is most likely for the Filipino students to perceive the same result for the two countries are reasonably having a different lingua franca or mother tongue compare to Americans. According to Khezerlou (2010), results of his study entitled Prospective English language Teachers’ views on Computer and Paper-based Instructional Materials in Developing Language Component indicated no significant correlation between participants’ knowledge of computers and their opinions,

but statistically significant relationship was found between gender and their opinions. In his study, participants were asked to decide to what degree computer and paper-based materials differed in language learning and teaching components, namely, vocabulary, grammar, pronunciation and intonation, listening, reading, speaking, writing, literature, target culture, pragmatics, general knowledge, learning strategies and styles, and creating a positive classroom atmosphere.

His study only gives emphasis on the theory of individual differences by which it was mentioned that the respondents’ gender and opinions varies with each other and is directly proportional to Teachers’ views on Computer and Paper-based Instructional Materials in Developing Language Component. Considering this fact, facilitators should highly consider their students’ individual preference when it comes to teaching strategy, methods and even instructional materials whether web-based or paper-based.

Post, et al. (June 2013) on his study entitled “Effects of Simultaneously Observing and Making Gestures while studying Grammar Animations on Cognitive Load and Learning” examined whether gestures facilitate grammar acquisition from animations. In contrast to the study’s hypothesis, results showed that children in the gesturing condition performed worse on the posttest than children in the non-gesturing, control condition.

A more detailed analysis of the data revealed an expertise reversal effect, indicating that this negative effect on posttest performance materialized for children with lower levels of general language skills, but not for children with higher levels of general language skills. The finding that for children with lower language ability, cognitive load did not decrease as they saw more animations provided additional support for this expertise reversal effect.

Post’s study conclude that simultaneously observing and making gestures hindered grammar learning because children with lower language skills had to invest more mental effort which makes them left behind by children trained with higher order skills. The use of gestures in teaching grammar is equivalent to the fiber by fiber discussion of the teacher in a sample class or what they call, a teacher-centered strategy. Similarly, it also connotes

the same idea of mixing the use of modern instructional materials (animations) and traditional instructional materials (gestures) may have imposed extraneous cognitive load on the lower ability children, which they could not accommodate together with the relatively high intrinsic load imposed by the learning task. Sanchez (August 2013) study entitled “Using Online Measures to Determine How Learners Process Instructional Explanations” examine the mechanisms underlying a strategy that teachers’ developed to make instructional explanations effective.

In two experiments participants learned about word transcription from a multimedia material, including adjunct explanations that revised common misunderstandings. These explanations were either marked (including a device that pointed out the misunderstanding that the explanation was intended to revise) or unmarked. In both experiments participants receiving marked revising explanations outperformed those receiving unmarked ones in retention and transfer.

In Experiment 1, think-aloud protocols revealed that marked revising explanations enabled learners to detect and repair flaws in their understanding more frequently than unmarked explanations. In Experiment 2, time recordings revealed that participants in the marked condition spent more time processing the revising explanations. Overall, the results mean that the revising instructional explanations that point out learners’ misunderstandings promote a revision-oriented processing, in which learners monitor and revise their own understanding.

The mentioned study above focused on the instructional explanations used in teaching word transcription with the use of multimedia materials. This shows that with the use of ICT as a means of teaching, accompaniment of instructional explanations are still needed to trigger extensive learning. When explanations do so, learners use them as a basis for revising understanding. Revising understanding leads to fewer distortions and better retention and transfer. Pae’s (2011) study entitled “Examining the effects of differential instructional methods on the model of foreign language achievement”

highlights the purpose of the study which is to examine the effects of differential instructional methods on the relationships between intrinsic and extrinsic motivations (IM and EM, respectively), self-confidence, motivation, and English as a foreign language (EFL) achievement for a sample of Korean university students and their teachers. To this end, two instructional groups, communicative and conventional, were selected based on the agreed judgment of both the teachers and their students.

The study results showed that EM was related to EFL achievement through motivation regardless of the teachers’ communicative orientations, whereas IM showed a relation to EFL achievement through motivation and self-confidence only in a classroom promoting communicative approach of language teaching. These results provided empirical evidence for the effects of differential instructional methods moderated on the structural relationships between SDT variables, self-confidence, motivation, and EFL achievement. The implications of these findings in relation to the EFL classroom are also presented.

Pae’s study focuses high on motivations: intrinsic motivations and extrinsic motivation. Intrinsic motivation showed a relation to EFL achievement through motivation and self-confidence only in a classroom promoting communicative approach of language teaching. Extrinsic motivation was related to EFL achievement through motivation regardless of the teachers’ communicative orientations. Extrinsic motivation showed a significant, positive, direct association with motivation but an insignificant relation with self-confidence regardless of the teachers’ communicative orientations.

The use of motivation also depends on the type of instructional materials to be used in teaching. Foreign Studies Wang Smith (2013), Reading and Grammar Learning through Mobile Phones describes an ongoing language-learning project, three years into its development. “We examine both the feasibility and the limitations of developing English reading and grammar skills through the interface of mobile phones. ” Throughout the project, reading and grammar materials were regularly sent to students’ mobile phones. Smith’s study discusses how students learn reading and grammar with the use of mobile phones.

Students read or took part in any aspect of the materials that appealed to them. Information gathered from participants and server logs indicate that reading and learning grammar using mobile devices is regarded as a positive language experience. Dean (2009) study about the Effectiveness of Computer-assisted Instruction (CAI) in teaching English confirmed that the use of computer-assisted instruction in teaching is effective not only in increasing academic achievements of the students but also more effective as an approach in teaching Intermediate English compare to the use of conventional or traditional teaching method.

He made used the stratified random sampling and simplified random technique of one hundred fourth year students as subjects. The use of computer-assisted instruction in teaching is effective not only in increasing academic achievements of the students but also more effective as an approach in teaching English compare to the use of conventional or traditional teaching method. (Talmadge & Eash, 2007) Instructional techniques are important, but the use of instructional materials also influences student achievement, use of process skills, and other outcomes.

Instructional materials provide the physical media through which the intents of the curriculum are experienced. A 2007 survey conducted by the National Survey and Assessment of Instructional Materials contained data indicating that students are involved in learning activities with instructional materials more than 90 percent of the time in classrooms. The study shows that instructional materials affect the students activity inside the classroom. It was stated that students are very much aware when it comes to the teacher’s instructional devices.

In many studies like the study of Lotga (2007) in United States, an experimental found that retention of information three days after a meeting or other event is six times greater when information is presented by visual and oral means than when the information is presented by the spoken words alone, approximately eighty three percent of human learning occurs visually, and the remaining 17% through the other senses- 11 studies suggest that three days after the event, people retain 10% of what they heard from the oral presentation, 35% from a visual presentation and 65% from a visual and oral presentation.

The retention of information three days after a meeting or other event is six times greater when information is presented by visual and oral means than when the information is presented by the spoken words alone, approximately eighty three percent of human learning occurs visually, and the remaining 17% through the other senses. Local Literature Burhes (2009), study entitled “Efforts to improve Students’ Learning Outcomes” have suggested the need to embed the use of educational technology in a learner-centered learning environment where students construct their own meanings.

In this study, video documentaries that asked students to explore problems associated with farmers’ use of ecologically unsound agricultural techniques were developed and used in a student-centered class. Their learning outcomes and experiences were compared to a group of students who studied the same topics in a teacher-centered learning environment. Results show that the improvement of the student-centered groups understanding of the problem was consistently higher than the teacher-centered group.

Data on learning experiences also showed that the learner-centered learning environment tended to engage students in knowledge construction, while the teacher-centered learning environment, information absorption. Overall findings suggest that technology can change and improve the quality of learning outcomes if designed to support knowledge construction in learner-centered learning environment. Burhes’ study supports the idea of effective language learning through the use of common informational communication technologies.

He suggested the need to embed educational technology in teachers’ instructional materials when a certain lesson will be learner-centered. The use of technology in learning is preferably better when the strategy to be used is learner centered rather than allowing the facilitator to explain. For example, students are already facing to their respective computers and they still need to listen to the teacher’s instructions on how to manipulate the system. In this case, children have to multitask.

But, if the instructions and guidelines were all set on the computers and they only need to read it and understand, the children didn’t have to constant repetition of instruction by the teacher. Local Studies Design and Use of Instructional Materials for Student Centered Learning (Sato, 2008; Allen, 2008; Burhes, 2009). Efforts to improve students’ learning outcomes have suggested the need to embed the use of educational technology in a learner-centered learning environment where students construct their own meanings.

In this study, video documentaries that asked students to explore problems associated with farmers’ use of ecologically unsound agricultural techniques were developed and used in a student-centered class. Their learning outcomes and experiences were compared to a group of students who studied the same topics in a teacher-centered learning environment. Results show that the improvement of the student-centered groups understanding of the problem was consistently higher than the teacher-centered group.

Data on learning experiences also showed that the learner-centered learning environment tended to engage students in knowledge construction, while the teacher-centered learning environment, information absorption. Overall findings suggest that technology can change and improve the quality of learning outcomes if designed to support knowledge construction in learner-centered learning environment. In 2008, De La Salle University-Manila, Philippines and The Asia-Pacific Education Researcher Vol.

17 Number 1 stated that the teacher-centered approach only promotes misconceptions and inert knowledge (Schank, Berman, & Macpherson, 2009; Bruer, 1994), a form of knowledge that can be called when prompted but cannot be applied in practical situations. On the other hand, the learner-centered approach, building on student’s current knowledge and abilities, enhances the development of higher-order skills such as critical thinking and problem-solving. This method enables students to acquire knowledge that transfers to novel situations.

To facilitate student-centered learning, many authors suggest the use of media and technology (Wang & Woo, 2007). However, in this type of learning, technologies should shift their role from being conveyors of information to a means for engaging students in thinking. More specifically, technologies should be used to pose problems to students, provide related cases and information resources, a social medium to support learning through collaboration and interaction, and intellectual partners to support learning by reflecting (Jonassen, Peck, & Wilson) CHAPTER III

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY This chapter presents the research method used in this study: research method, respondents, data gathering instrument, reliability of the instrument, data gathering procedure, and statistical analysis of data. Research Method This study deals with the effectiveness of the traditional and modern instructional materials in learning English grammar as perceived by 4th year students at Pag- asa National High School S. Y 2013-2014. The mean method was used in the study. The data was largely gathered through the use of questionnaire. Respondents of the Study

The respondents of this research study are the 4th year high school students at Pag- asa National High School. There are four sections of fourth year students in the said school and their total number is 170. Table 1. List of PNHS Fourth Year Students Section No. of Respondents Population Test-retest Sample Population Gemini 39 2 27 Pisces 45 3 32 Sagittarius 48 3 34 Virgo 38 2 27 Total 170 10 120 Reliability of the Instrument To determine the reliability of the instrument, the researchers conducted a test-retest method to 10 respondents. They will give the questionnaires again to the selected students only after ten days.

This is to determine whether they retain same answers in a period of time. These 10 respondents are not included into the original number of respondents. The Pearson r was used by the researcher to prove the reliability of the study. The formula is: Pearson r: r=(N(? -xy)-(? -x)(? -y))/v([N(? -x^2 )-(? -x)^2 ][N(? -y^2 )-(? -y )^2 ) ] ) Where:N = number of samples XY = product of X and Y ?-? xy=? the sum of the product of X and Y X = the scores of the first group Y = the scores of the second group ?-? x=? the sum of the scores of the first group ?-? y=? the sum of the scores of the second group

Instructional Materials X Y Traditional Charts208187387443723610 Flashcards202214435041904636 Graphs205179361143273365 Hand-outs216206443345184229 Boardwork225225505951435073 TOTAL10561011213272255020913 R1. 00 Modern Overhead Projectors187180335036193378 Presentation Software209188393044813630 Slide show207220453344394908 Videos204211435642704513 E- Library214208449047144370 TOTAL10211007206592152320799 R1. 00 Table 1 Reliability of Traditional and Modern Instructional Materials Table 1 shows that both the first and second administration of the questionnaires yields the same result.

Both administrations implied very high reliability mean of 1. 46 and 1. 65. Traditional Instructional Materials r=(N(? -xy)-(? -x)(? -y))/v([N(? -x^2 )-(? -x)^2 ][N(? -y^2 )-(? -y )^2 ) ] ) r= (10(21,327)-(1,056)(1,011))/(v([10(22,550)-(1,056)^2 ] ) [10(20,913)-(1,011)^2 ] ) r= (21,327-1,067,616)/v([225,500-1,115,136][209,130-1,022,121] ) r= (-854,346)/v((-889,636)(-812,991) ) r= (-854,346)/v723,266,061,276 r= (-854,346)/850,450. 5049 r= 1. 00 very high reliability Modern Instructional Materials r=(N(? -xy)-(? -x)(? -y))/v([N(? -x^2 )-(? -x)^2 ][N(? -y^2 )-(?

-y )^2 ) ] ) r= (10(20,659)-(1,021)(1,007))/(v([10(21,523)-(1,021)^2 ] ) [10(20,799)-(1,007)^2 ] ) r= (206,590-1,028,147)/v([215,230-1,042,441][207,990-1,014,049] ) r= (-821,557)/v((-827,211)(-806,059) ) r= (-821,557)/v666,780,871,449 r= (-821,557)/816,566. 5138 r= 1. 00 very high reliability Research Instrument The researchers used survey questionnaire to determine the effectiveness of traditional and modern instructional materials in learning English grammar. Data Gathering The researchers developed a set of questionnaire to gather the required information. The questionnaire has two parts.

The first one is PNHS student’s profile and the second one refers to kinds of instructional materials and how those affect the student’s knowledge in English grammar. The questionnaire was administered by the researcher to all fourth year students of PNHS after their request to PNHS principal and the faculty teachers. Data Gathering Procedure Researchers prepared survey questionnaires before they were distributed to the target respondents. Since some of the proponents in this research team graduated in the identified school, the research proponents wrote a letter to the English department chairs to seek permission to conduct the survey.

The letter included the objective of the research and a sample questionnaire. The proponents will then conduct the survey once the department head or the college dean had approved the request. As earlier, the proponents would only involve 120 senior students from the identified institution. Data to be collected will be tallied and subjected to non parametric statistical analyses of the data, the main proponent will write the report. Some of the members of the research team will assist in the writing and editing of the final paper. Statistical Treatment for Data

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