Introduction Traffic congestion is one of the most compelling global problems especially in developed cities. London is among those cities which suffer from the traffic problems. According to the London city council, London’s population was 8. 17 million in 2011. By the year 2011, every 100 people in London owns 60-65 personal cars, which means cars have been the prior transportation tools for local people (Blythe, 2005). Frequently using cars as vehicle contributes to the traffic problems. As the rapid growth of population, the rate of car ownership would reach to a higher level hich is a severe test to the environment.
According to Hickman et al (2010), Approximately 25% of carbon dioxide(C02) emissions is contributed by transport tools. Obviously, traffic problem is a magnificent cause of the environmental damage. Although some relevant policy has been implemented to reduce the congestion, traffic problems still exist across the capital with the growth of population and employment. (Transport Committee, 2008) According to Transport Committee (2008), London’s traffic speeds are below average speeds of global cities such as New York nd Singapore.
Meanwhile, the population and the demands of Jobs in London are predicted to reach to a high level by 2025. The location of the additional Job will force a large number of people to go through the city at peak hours, which is a severe challenge to the local traffic situation. (Transport Committee, 2008) Thus, light rail transit systems (LRT) could be the ideal solution to traffic problem. However, the high cost might limit the scale of this method. Electronic toll collection system (ETC) is regarded as another option with relatively low cost.