Turing On Intelligence Essay Research Paper Copyright
Turing On Intelligence Essay, Research Paper
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A Subject: 031: Science: Doctrine
A Title: Turing on Intelligence
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Can computing machines of all time be intelligent? Hollywood would wish to believe so. Ever since the
early 1960s, free believing machines have entered the mainstream of Science-Fiction
movies, from the evil & # 8220 ; Hal & # 8221 ; from 2001: A Space Odyssey to the elegant & # 8220 ; Data & # 8221 ; in Star T
to Turing? s standard.
In 1950, Alan Turing devised a trial to find intelligence of a digital computing machine in
his historic essay, Calculating Machinery and Intelligence. His name for the trial was
the & # 8220 ; Imitation game, & # 8221 ; which was later named the & # 8220 ; Turing Test & # 8221 ; by members of the AI
trial was held on November 8, 1991 in Boston & # 8217 ; s Computer Museum. The competition was
called the Loebner Contest, named after a concern adult male Hugh Loebner who offered
a $ 100,000 dollar award to the writer of the first plan to go through the full Turing trial. In T
To this twenty-four hours, the AI community can non hold on how it is we are intelligent. If we are
witting, self-conscious, understanding, rational existences, and we are besides intelligent, are
we intelligent because we are witting, self-conscious, and rational, or are these
achine? s outward behaviour is identical from the rational behaviour of a
homo, so the machine is intelligent. Turing implies that what is go oning within
the computing machine is irrelevant to the inquiry of intelligence. This definition omits the The
definition of intelligence Turing proposed about 50 old ages ago still remains a valid
one. Members of the AI community have accepted his definition as a jurisprudence. Still others
rebut his definition. In effort to demo that Turing? s definition of intel 1. Shop
2. Executive unit,
Like and infant turning to adulthood invariably taking in informations and hive awaying it, the
computing machine can besides have and hive away inputs. With engineering today, this storage can
be about infinite. The executive unit in an baby is the baby? s ability to entree he
shop, and dictat
es the computing machine? s behaviour.
It is clear that although there exist important analogues between the wide maps of
a human head and those of a computing machine, there seems to be a cardinal difference
between these two systems: The computing machine merely recalls information stored in its vitamin D
But wouldn? T that merely be an application of already known finds applied to a
different job? If this type of work is defined as original, so a computing machine can
easy produce original work by associating information in its databases together using
n thought. The lone difference at that place seems to be is the deficiency of consciousness on the
portion of the computing machine.
I would now wish to take apart the statement of consciousness Turing addressed in his
paper with a modern illustration. The statement from consciousness is simple: In order
to cognize a machine thinks, one would hold to somehow happen out if the machine knows
it is s with Chinese characters on them. When a native Chinese talker who acts as
a justice inserts a phrase by agencies of index cards through the slot, the adult male must
explicate a response. But the regulation book does non hold interlingual renditions for the characters.
Alternatively, Searle states that no computing machine plan could of all time understand anything as
we understand things. Programs mimic the actions of the English talker, they follow
regulations to pull strings meaningless symbols. Although the end product of the computing machine is
meaningful to u go the machine and see the consciousness it is
The Turing trial still remains the most accurate agencies of mensurating intelligence. It is
clear that computing machines & # 8220 ; believe & # 8221 ; otherwise than worlds. Philosophers like John Searle
support the claim that computing machines will be able to believe consciously, although non i
Epstein, Robert. The Quest for the Thinking Computer. AI Magazine, pages
80 & # 8211 ; 95, 1992.
Garner, Robby. The Idea of FRED, ALMA, Issue 1, January 18, 1996
Gribbin, John. In Search of Schroedinger? s Cat. New York. 1984. p163.
Turing, A.M. , 1950. Calculating Machinery and Intelligence, Mind 59: 433-460.
Reprinted in: Haugeland, John. Mind Design II. 1997, 29-56
Plato, Meno. Indianapolis, Indiana. 1949. p44.
Searle, John. Minds, Brains and Programs. Behavior and Brain Sciences