Type 2 Diabetes
Diagnosis and Treatment Guidelines for Type II Diabetes Type II diabetes is a severe form of diabetes caused by inadequate production of insulin and resulting in anomalous metabolism of carbohydrates, fats, and proteins. Diabetes usually appears in children and slowly progresses by the increase of sugar levels in the blood stream and urine. Facts show that 90%-95% of people with diabetes have type II diabetes (ADA, 2006). This is usually caused by lack of nutrition or inactivity. Type II diabetes is usually found in adults because children start out with Type I.
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To lead up to the diagnosis of having type II diabetes, some things need to be occurring within the body. The body is going through insulin resistance, which is when the body does not respond to the insulin being released by the pancreas (ADA, 2006). The body will also be going through hyperglycemia, which means that there are abnormally high levels of sugar in the blood, leading up to the point where glucose cannot be taken into the muscle by insulin. Some symptoms of diabetes are increased thirst, decrease in energy, fatigue, slow healing wounds, blurred, vision, and frequent urination(ADA, 2006).
The body feels weak because the glucose in the blood is not being transported to cells for energy use. In order to discover whether one has diabetes he or she must go through a test. Some of the most common tests for diagnosis are the FPG (fasting plasma glucose) test, Random plasma glucose test, IGTT (intravenous glucose tolerance) test, and OGTT (oral glucose tolerance) test(Meyer, 2004). Getting checked for diabetes is a positive thing because it determines how quickly glucose is cleared from the blood and measures the body’s ability to handle glucose.
It is also very important to get tested because statistics show that one-third of type II diagnosis cases go undiagnosed(Medline plus). Diabetes also brings along damage to the body other than the symptoms. Heart/ Cardiovascular disease, kidney disease, neuropathy, foot problems, skin problems, eye problems, and depression can all form from diabetes. Some of the foot problems included are foot ulcers, calluses, and amputations. Skin problems include bacterial infections, itching, and blisters. Eye problems consist of glaucoma, cataracts, and blindness(Diagnosis and classification, 2009).
There is a variety that has the risks of having type II diabetes. First of all, individuals with a family history of diabetes have the highest chance of also inheriting diabetes(Cheng, 2007). Pregnancy in women also increases the chance of having type II diabetes, which can create complications in the pregnancies. A complication would be Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM), which is diagnosed during pregnancy. After the child is born, most mothers are tested for type II diabetes. African Americans and Hispanics have an increased risk of having diabetes because they are the two ethnicities with the highest chance(Cheng, 2007).
Anyone overweight or obese has a critical risk of diabetes due to all the glucose not being used as energy in the body. People with low HDL cholesterol levels should also be tested. After reaching the age of 45, people should be tested every 3 years for diabetes because the body becomes less active(Standards of medical care, 2009). Treating diabetes can be a long process but it is better for the body in the long run. Diet is the main form of treatment. One can diet by reducing the amount of sugar and fat intake in his or her daily diet. Doing this decreases the amount of glucose that is needed to be broken down and stored.
Exercise is also an effective method to treat diabetes. Exercise improves the cardiovascular system, uses the glucose as energy, and burns off fat(ADA, 2006). A patient should work toward losing 5 to 10% of his or her body weight. Exercising 30 minutes a day or 150 minutes a week should begin to show results in the patient’s health(ADA, 2006). When neither of these options work, oral medications and insulin shots and even glyburide are used instead(Diagnosis and classification, 2009). Anyone that has diabetes should always keep track of his or her blood sugar. The finger pricking method is most common way to check blood sugar.
Also an effective way to lessen the symptoms of diabetes is to stop smoking and drinking. If a patient smokes he or she is more likely to have nerve and kidney damage. If the patient drinks then he or she will have a low blood sugar(ADA, 2006). Type II diabetes can be a rough and perilous journey to go through. Though if you take the steps to keep it under control, life will become less stressful. Therefore keeping the blood sugar balanced, keeping a healthy diet, and keeping a fit body can help reduce the symptoms. Type II diabetes does not control the body, the body can control type II diabetes.