When an employee of same level communicates each other than it can be labeled as horizontal communication. It helps employees to perform the task efficiently. In the words of R. Pal and Korlahalli, “Communication between department and people on the same level in the managerial hierarchy of an organization may be termed as horizontal or lateral communication. Thus it can be stated that exchange of information between same level employees of different departments in Horizontal Communication. Horizontal Communication Advantages of Horizontal Communication Advantages of Horizontal Communication:

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There are many advantages of Horizontal Communication. These advantages are as follows: 1. Better Understanding: Horizontal communication ensures better understanding, accordingly employees of different division able to perform their job more efficiently. 2. Coordination: Direct communication by breaking the vertical channel strengthens the bondage between employees of different departments which helps to boost up co-ordination. 3. Increase Productivity: Horizontal communication minimizes the problems of understanding among various departments as a result, productivity increased. 4. Better implementation of decision:

Decisions are made by top management but they are executed by the lower level employees. When lower level employees allowed communicating each other through horizontal communication, it helps to realize the policy and ensures better implementation of decision. 5. Motivation: Horizontal communication not only increases the level of coordination but also facilitates the task of motivation. 6. Cordiality: Due to the free flow of information cordiality among the employees increases considerably. 7. Employee morale: Better understanding and cordial environment also boost-up the morale of the employees.

Teamwork: In any organization for some specific purposes teamwork is essential. Horizontal communication is a prerequisite for successful teamwork. 9. Job satisfaction: Another major advantage of horizontal communication is, it increases job satisfaction of the employees. By ensuring cordial atmosphere and lifting the morale of employees horizontal communication plays a vital role in increasing the job satisfaction. Disadvantages of Horizontal Communication There are some disadvantages of Horizontal Communication. These disadvantages are as follows: 1. Lack of Control:

Sometimes too much horizontal communication creates problem for the management and controlling may become difficult as the horizontal

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communication increases. 2. Conflict: By passing the vertical channel horizontal communication allows the employees to communicate freely but sometimes it leads to personal conflict. 3. Time Consuming: Communication in addition to vertical instruction may delay the implementation of decision. 4. Lack of discipline: As strict rules are not followed organizational discipline also can be hampered in horizontal communication. **** **** **** Vertical Communication

Vertical Communication: The official communication that takes place between superiors and subordinates are known as vertical communication. This is the most common form of communication of an organization. It can be downward or upward. Advantages of Vertical Communication There are many advantages of Vertical Communication. These advantages are as follows: 1. Discipline: In vertical communication official channels are used thus strict discipline can be maintained. 2. Record: As it follows the formal media it has documentary evidence which can be used in future. 3. Provide direction:

Instructions or directions for proper implementation of official functions can be transmitted through vertical communication. 4. Feedback: Both downward and upward communications are allowed in vertical communication which ensures proper feedback. 5. Recognition: Vertical communication is one of the recognized media of internal communication. 6. Co-ordination: Both wary communications under vertical system ensures coordination among the employees. 7. Dependable: Information transmitted through vertical communication is authentic and dependable. Disadvantages of Vertical Communication

There are many disadvantages of Vertical Communication. These disadvantages are as follows: 1. Time consuming: As it follows the official channels it is a time consuming process. 2. Lack of flexibility: Vertical communication is not flexible, thus failed to cope up with the changed situation. 3. Lack of creativity: In vertical communication employees become mechanized and want to go by books. As a result they become less creative. Upward Communication Upward Communication: Hello dear friends here you will get what do you mean by upward communication? Or Define Upward Communication.

I guess that you will get advantage from here. When information flows from the lower level employees to the superiors then it is known as upward communication. In an organization employees also need to convey message to the executives or to provide feedback. R. Pal and J. S. Korlahalli said, “The communication which pushes the flow of information upward is known as the upward channel of communication. ” Upward Communications In the light of above definition it can be stated that upward communication is the opposite system of downward communication which allows the flow of information from the down to the up.

Advantages of Upward Communication There are many advantages of Upward Communication. These advantages are as follows: 1. Feedback: The major advantages of upward communication are, it provides feedback from the employees. As a result the communication loop (cycle) completes and management can realize the reactions of the employees. 2. Constructive idea: Upward communication allows the employees to inform their views regarding the implementation of company policies. 3. Helps decision making: Through upward communication top management can know the views of flower level employees which help them to make more realistic decision.

Establishment of good relation: Upward communication brings executives and employees close to each other and accordingly mutual relationship developed. 5. Mutual trust: For the success of any sort of communication trust is an essential element. As relationship developed through upward communication mutual trust also created. 6. Enhance coordination: Opportunity to express own views and participation in the decision making enhance the level of coordination. 7. Motivation: The task of motivation needs two way communications between the concerned parties.

Upward communication enables the executives to extend appropriate motivational measures. 8. Introduction of new policy: Upward communication also helps the executives to introduce new policies. Disadvantages of Upward Communication There are many disadvantages of Upward Communication. These disadvantages are as follows: 1. Reluctance: In some cases employees are reluctant to provide information through upward channel. 2. Non-cooperative attitude: Non-cooperative attitude to the executives damage the willingness of the employees to initiate upward communication. 3. Chance of distortion:

Downward communication can be distorted unconsciously but in case of upward communication information can be distorted deliberately. 4. Trend to by-pass: Another side effect of upward communication is tendency of by passing the immediate boss, can be created among the employees. 5. Delay: Sometimes lower level employees hesitate to inform a problem upward because doing so means acceptance of failure. Thus delays may take place to decide whether to inform the top management or try further to solve the problem. Downward Communication Downward Communication:

Communication which flows from the superiors to subordinates is known as downward communication. In an organization structure, the superiors utilize their abilities to attain the desired targets which mean that they may be engaged in issuing commands, directions and policy directives to the persons working under them (at lower levels). Under downward communication, the superiors anticipate instant recital of a job that’s why it is highly directive. Downward communication can be defined as, “Information flowing from the top of the organizational management hierarchy and telling people

in the organization what is important and what is valued. Some examples of downward communication include notice, circulars, instructions, orders, letters, memos, bulletins, handbooks, annual reports, loudspeaker announcements and group meetings. Communication from superior to subordinate can be face to face as well as through written memorandums, orders, job descriptions etc. Downward Communication Advantages of Downward Communication There are many advantages of Downward Communication. These advantages are as follows: 1. Discipline: Downward communication follows the official chain of command thus discipline can be maintained.

Operational efficiency: In case of downward communication employees always receive instruction from the executives, as a result their operational efficiency increased. 3. Warning the employees: Downward communication is a means of control. If performance of an employee is deviated from expectation, then through downward communication his or her immediate superior can warn him to correct the fault. 4. Notification/Announcement: New policies or any change in the existing polices can be informed to the employees through downward notices. 5. Watching the performance:

Performance of the employees can be watched or evaluated through downward communication. 6. Assignment of goals: Executives inform the employees about their responsibilities and assign ‘the individual goals’ that must be achieved. 7. Relation establishment: In downward communication superiors not only provide instructions but also provide inspiration to the employees. As a result relationship between top management and employees improved. 8. Delegation of authority: An individual will not be able to perform his/her duty properly unless sufficient authority is given.

Under downward communication system delegation of authority becomes easier through the chain of command. Disadvantages of Downward Communication There are many Disadvantages of Downward Communication. These Disadvantages are as follows: 1. Lack of interpretation: Instructions are available in downward communication but due to lack of feedback necessary interpretation may not be achieved in time. 2. Not suitable for motivation: Due to over dependence on formal channels downward communication is not suitable for motivating employees. 3. Negative impact on morale:

Long process, time consuming and lack of feedback creates negative impact on the morale of employees. 4. Time consuming: As information flows orderly step by step so the process becomes time consuming. 5. Lack of feedback: Usually downward communication does not allow immediate feedback, which can reduce the efficiency of communication. 6. Distortion: As downward communication follows the formal chain of command information passes through the chain from top to bottom. Thus there is chance of distortion of the massage when it reaches to the ultimate users.

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