Understand Health and Safety in Social Care Settings 8Understand how to promote environmental safety procedures in the social care setting 8. 4Explain the importance of having an emergency plan in place to deal with unforeseen incidents Having an emergency plan in place, helps people to deal with things in an emergency. It lays out what should be done and how things should be handled. The idea behind an emergency plan is to meet specific needs. In the event of a fire or gas leak, it lays out exactly what needs to be done to handle the situation. It provides strategies and ways to handle.

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For example, in the event of a fire, it would outline what procedure to follow. This can include how to raise the alarm, how to handle the situation and who and when to contact people. It would also outline who is in charge of the certain situation, for example, who is in charge of fire safety. An emergency plan has reporting measures. This is useful in reporting back findings and assessing situations and how they could be handled differently or improved on. In the event of an emergency, an emergency plan establishes authority. It lays out who should be doing what and who needs to take charge of the whole situation.

Everybody knows exactly what to do, where to be and there is no confusion. The plan includes emergency evacuation routes. This is crucial in health and safety as it ensures that all involved are able to find the quickest and safest way of leaving the building. This can help to reduce injury and save lives. An emergency plan enables training opportunities. It can identify who is trained, who needs training and any additional training that may be needed to handle such emergencies. An emergency plan also enables co-ordination with other agencies.

It enables the company and outside agencies to work together to ensure that training is all up-to-date and should there be an unforeseen circumstance, all persons involved know what to do. It ensures that the Company is able to handle

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such situations and that they are doing everything they can to prevent such incidents. This can show that the Company has Fire Safety checks in place and up to date for example. Emergency plans are paramount in dealing with incidents and unforeseen circumstances should they occur. They ensure that all involved know what to do and how to handle things.

It can help reduce injury and save lives. It keeps people up-to-date with training and raises awareness. 9Understand how to manage stress 9. 1Describe common signs and indicators of stress Stress in a normal physical response to events or happenings that make you feel threatened or unbalanced in one way or another. When the body senses danger, whether it is real or imagined, the body kicks into action and creates as an automatic response known as the stress response. The stress response is the body’s way of protecting you. When it is working properly, it enables you to stay balanced, focused and alert.

Sometimes the stress response can save your life; it is the body’s way of dealing with things quickly. Although stress can help your body, after a certain point, it can start causing major damage to your health. Stress affects your quality of life and mood. There are a number of signs and symptoms to stress that you need to look out for and can include the following; 1. Cognitive Symptoms Memory Problems – Stress can cause you to forget things. The body worries that much about what is happening or what needs to be done that it can cause memory problems.

Inability to concentrate – There is that much playing on the mind that stress can cause the body to have an inability to concentrate. There is lack of focus in life and this can be the body’s way of recognising this. Poor judgement – Stress can cause you to make inappropriate judgements and handle things in a different way. Seeing only the negative – The stress that you are experiencing can cause lack of motivation and energy. Sometimes people feel that there is no way forward and they can only see negative things happening to them or around them.

Anxious thoughts – The body feels that there is so much going on and may not be able to cope with what is happening. This causes you to become restless and anxious. Constant worrying – Stress can cause over load on the body and this in turn can cause the body to find it hard to handle things. You start to constantly worry about what is happening and what is going to happen. 2. Emotional Symptoms Moodiness – People handle stress in different ways. Stress and the changes in the body can cause you to have mood swings that you find difficult to control. Agitation – This can be the bodies’ way of dealing with stress.

As things are happening and changing around you, it can cause you to become agitated. Feeling overwhelmed – This can be caused be stress. There is so much happening and going on around you, that you may feel things are becoming too much. You may feel that things are out of your hands and you do not know what to do. Sense of isolation – Stress can cause you to isolate yourself off from others and your surroundings. You do not know how to handle things that you cut yourself off from the outside world and become isolated. Depression – Depression can be very serious, and left untreated can cause suicidal thoughts.

You can become that stressed; you become low in mood and cannot see any way out. 3. Physical Symptoms Aches and pains – The body can become tired from stress and as a result you become run down. The body has general aches and pains. Many people may not associate this with stress but it is something to look out for. Nausea and Diarrhoea – Nausea or sickness and diarrhoea can be a common sign of stress. The body becomes run down and drained and this is the body’s way of coping. Left untreated, this can be serious for the body. Chest pain – Chest pain can be a physical symptom of stress and can be quite serious if ignored and left untreated.

The amount of stress the body is enduring becomes too much and this is the bodies way of coping with it. Frequent colds – Frequent colds can be a sign that the body is run down and this can be a cause of stress. Again, this is something that some people may not associate with stress but it is something to look out for. 4. Behavioural Symptoms Eating more or less – One way of dealing with stress is to over eat or under eat. When people become stressed some people indulge on extra foods that they enjoy for comfort. Others, on the other hand, may find themselves under eating to help cope with stress.

Sleeping too much or too little – Stress can take the energy out of the body and therefore make you want to sleep more. Also, because you have so much playing on your mind, it can cause lack of sleep due to worry. Isolation yourself from others – By isolating yourself from others, you are at a greater vulnerability to stress. However, stress can cause you to isolate yourself from others because you start to feel so low. Neglecting responsibilities – Stress can make people feel that low and they can lack motivation and energy. This in the long run can cause them to start neglecting the responsibilities.

Using alcohol or drugs – Some people can turn to alcohol, cigarettes or drugs. This can help the body to relax, but over-use can cause more damage to the body in the long run. Nervous habits – Stress can cause you to start certain habits. This can include for example, nail biting or pacing up and down. All signs and symptoms can be serious and need to be checked out. A visit to your General Practitioner is advised for a check-up and for reassurance. However, one thing to remember is that everyone deals with stress in different ways. 9. 2Describe factors that tend to trigger own stress

The situations and pressures that cause stress can be known as stressors. Stressors are commonly known as negative factors such as a tiring work schedule or financial problems. However, anything that puts high demand on the body and forces the body to change or adjust can be stressful. There are positive factors in life that can also cause stress and an example of this could be getting married or buying a house. Stress can be caused by both internal and external factors. External factors are commonly known as the things that we can see that we have no control over.

Internal factors are commonly known as factors that are self-generated. This can be as a result of worrying over something that may or may not happen. What causes stress depends on the way in which we handle things. Everybody handles stress in different ways and no two people are the same. Whereas one person may find that having to queue is stressful, another person may feel that it can be quite relaxing as it gives you time to think. There are a number of factors that trigger stress and can include the following; ? Major life changes – The body gets into a routine when we carry out everyday tasks and jobs.

We get used to things that we have to do. Major life changes can cause the body to go into shock and can cause stress. You may feel such situation difficult to handle and not know what to do. Examples of major life changes can include injury, illness or bereavement. The body goes into shock as this is the body’s way of dealing with such situation. ?Work Factors – You get into a routine at work and know how to handle things. A change in routine or pressures to meet work targets can cause stress. You may not know how to handle a situation or are unsure about carrying out a certain task.

The body becomes stressed and you may not know what to do. One situation that I have found that can cause stress at work is dealing with difficult situations. In the event of an emergency bell going, the body kicks into action and you can become stressed. It can be a result as of change in situation or even the case that you feel things should be done differently. Stress can be handled in different ways and it is learning what is best for you. ?Relationship difficulties or family problems – Family can be a common cause of stress. A breakdown in relationship or arguments can cause stress.

The body does not know how to handle situations and becomes stressed. Something may not be going the way you want, or someone maybe doing something that you disagree with. The body becomes stressed and can cause more problems as makes the situation more difficult to deal with. ?Financial problems – Money can be a big factor where stress is concerned. Earning too little or big bills can cause stress. You may feel that you are doing everything you can, but you are still not able to get on top of things. ?Being too busy – Work over-load or taking on too much responsibility can trigger stress.

You may find there is not enough time to do things or not enough hours in the day. Stress becomes a factor and everything starts to become too much. 9. 3Evaluate strategies for managing stress Everybody has different ways of dealing with stress. Although one method of coping with stress may work for one person, it may not work for another. It is about finding what is best for you and using methods that are best suited to you and your lifestyle. If one way does not work for you, move on to a different way and find the method that works best. It can be said that it is about trial and error.

You are the only person that can do something about your stress levels, from changing your lifestyle to asking for help and support. Physical Strategies – what you feel You need to maintain good sleeping patterns. Maintaining proper sleep can help you to cope with stress. Lack of sleep over a long period of time can cause depressions. When you are tired and run down, stress affects you more. You need to watch your diet. Caffeine intake can raise your stress levels considerably. A well balanced diet can improve your ability to cope with stress. An exercise program is a good way of managing stress.

If you are in good physical shape, you are better able to tolerate stress. Through exercise, you are able to re-focus your attention and release stress and tension. Perceptual Strategies – what you see Diverse tactics are a good way of managing stress. When you feel yourself becoming stressed and uptight, diverse your attention elsewhere. This could include anything from hobbies to a favourite television program. In order to manage stress, you need to be able to focus your attention. You need to learn to ignore what is making you become uptight and focus on what is relaxing.

Focus on things that make you happy and comfortable. Cognitive Strategies – what you think You need to stop trying to make yourself perfect. Although everyone wants to be the best that they can, you are who you are. By wanting to make yourself perfect, you are almost asking the impossible. You are going to raise your stress levels and make yourself something that you are not. It is about treating yourself to the things that you know you like and enjoying them. This can be anything from sweet treats, to hobby time or even time away. It is about making the most of the time you have.

Stress and managing stress can also be related to self appraisal. You need to learn to think differently about things and evaluate the situation. Were there things that could have been done differently? Could you have used your time differently? Did it make you happy? Using self appraisal can help to reduce stress levels by managing you and your time differently. Affective Strategies – how you feel You need to be able to enjoy your life and those around you. It is about taking time out for yourself and doing the things that you enjoy. If you do not feel happy around people, try and make new friends.

You need to be able to express your feelings openly. If you need to cry, cry and if you need to laugh, laugh. Do not keep feelings and emotions inside as this can help to increase your stress levels immensely. It is about managing your emotions and how you feel. Try not to take life too seriously and enjoy the good times! Environmental Strategies – what is around you In order to manage stress, you need to take time out from stressful situations. You need to engage yourself in things that you find relaxing and take time out for yourself.

You need to keep yourself calm and focused in order to help manage stress levels. You need to try and avoid situations where possible, that make you stressed or anxious. I find myself that avoiding big crowds of people can sometimes help to relieve stress levels. You need to make the most of support around you. Ask for help from friends and families to help you through tough times. Asking for help does not mean that you have admitted defeat; it means that you are trying to make the better of something and improve upon your situation. 10Understand procedures regarding handling medication 10.

1Describe the main points of agreed procedures about handling medication There are acts that cover handling of medication that Companies need to adhere to keep in line with national policies and procedures. Outcome 9 of the Health and Social Care Act 2008 covers handling medication. The Management of Medicines Regulation 13 covers what companies should be doing to handle medication correctly. It ensures that service users will have their medicines at the times that they need them and in a safe way. Wherever possible, it ensures that all information regarding these medications is made available to service users at all times.

It also covers where others are acting on a service user’s behalf. Such Outcome ensures that the company who complies with the regulation will handle medicines securely, safely and appropriately. It will ensure that all medicines and prescribed and are given safely. It will also ensure that Companies will follow published guidelines about how to use medicines safely. Handling Medicines in Social Care Settings Guidance 2007 covers the correct handling of medication. The purpose of this document is to provide professional guidance for people who are involved in handling medicines in every social care setting.

The guidance given is based on good practice and current legislation. The Guidance ensures that every registered provider, such as a care home, and the care service manager are jointly responsible for the safe and appropriate handling of all medicines in the setting. It ensures that the company has written policies and procedures in place for all aspects of handling medication. It ensures that the registered care homes have competent and trained care workers administering and handling medication at all times. Royal Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain – Main points for handling medication – This is a booklet for social care settings.

The purpose of the booklet is to provide guidance for people in social care who are involved with the handling of medications. Social care settings can check local regulations and legislation at any time. The Royal Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain outlines situations that may arise from handling medications. It outlines principles of safe handling of medication and explains how such principles relate to specific services. It outlines procedures and methods that work in line with best practice and represents good professional practice.

Medication in a social care setting is the responsibility of trained Nurses. Staff do not have any responsibilities for medication unless they have received adequate training. As an NVQ Level 2 or 3 Carer, you cannot handle or administer medication without the appropriate training. Care providers are responsible for assessing a Care Worker’s competence to give medicines to the people that they care for. They should not make assumptions based on that care worker’s previous experience. Even when care staff do not routinely give medicines, it is important to know; •Whether the person has any medicines

•What the medicines are and how they should be taken •What conditions the medicines are intended to treat. Agreed Procedures for handling medication Obtaining – This must be done by a responsible person (normally the trained nurse) working within locally defined protocols. There are three main groups of medication as defined by the Medicines Act 1968 and these are; •General Sale List (GSL) These medicines can be purchased from any shop. •Pharmacy Only (PO) These medicines can only be purchased from a pharmacy. •Prescription Only Medicines (POM) These medicines can only be obtained with a prescription.

In care and domiciliary settings many medication orders will be repeat prescriptions. Obtaining the correct medication for individuals will be the responsibility of the trained nurse. It will be their responsibility to ensure that dosages match with the prescriptions. Storing – All medication needs to be stored in a clean, lockable, secure facility so that they cannot be mixed up with other people’s medicines and cannot be stolen. If a drug’s trolley is used, it must be secured to the wall when not in use and be big enough to store all required medication.

The keys should be stored in a safe place or on the trained nurse, and not be left lying around. Administering – All organisations should have in place their own local policies and procedures for the safe administration of medication for that particular care setting. ‘Safe administration’ is defined as medicines given in such a way as to avoid causing harm to the person taking the medicine. Medicines must never be removed from their original containers or bottles in which they were dispensed by the pharmacist. Staff must always follow set procedures within their care settings and adhere to the main principals of safe administration.

In many social care settings this will be the responsibility of the trained nurse and you will not administer any medication to individuals. In order to administer medication correctly, the trained nurse needs to; •Identify the medication correctly •Administer the correct dosage •Identify the person correctly •Know what the medicine is intended to do •Know whether any special precautions are needed Medicine must only be dispensed from its original container at the time of administration for the person for whom it is intended. It must never be decanted into another container or given to someone at a later time.

Recording – Medicines are the property of the service user for whom they are prescribed, however, providers are required to keep records of medicine used by service users, ensure that there are regular reviews of medication being taken by service users and a record kept within the service user’s care/support plan. All medication records should be referenced back to the original prescription and not the previous Medicine Administration Record (MAR) chart. An up to date record of current medication prescribed for each service user must be maintained. Medicine records should be kept together in one place.

MAR charts need to be completed at the time of administering medication. 10. 2Explain why medication must only be handled following specialist training Medication errors happen, but when they do it is important that there is a ‘no blame’ policy that encourages staff to report errors immediately. An error in the administration of a medicine can be at best inconvenient or at worse fatal. Common medications errors include the following; •Under administration – By ensuring that you have specialist training in administering medication, you are reducing the likelihood of under administration.

The administration of medication needs to tally with the dosage. Insufficient training may mean that not enough medication is given. The dosage is too low and thus will not be treating the service user in the appropriate way. •Over administration – By ensuring that you have specialist training in administering medication, you are reducing the likelihood of over administration. The administration of medication needs to tally with the dosage. Insufficient training may mean that too much medication is given. The dosage is too high or too strong and thus will not be treating the service user in the appropriate way.

This can have serious implications on the service user’s health and medical advice should be sought immediately. •Incorrect medication – Should medication be administered by people that have not had specialist training; you run the risk of administering the incorrect medication. You may not know how to identify the correct medication. By administering after specialist training, you are ensuring that the correct medication is given and matches up with the patient’s records. •Incorrect prescription – By ensuring that you have specialist training in administering medication, you are reducing the likelihood of an incorrect prescription.

The prescription may not match with the medication. Specialist training can help to identify such issues and ensure that you know how to go about dealing with them. •Non administration – By ensuring that you have specialist training in administering medication, you are reducing the likelihood of non administration. By having insufficient training, you may not know when and how to administer medication and thus likely to miss administering. •Non recording – Should medication be administered by people that have not had specialist training, you may not know how to record medicines in the correct way.

Such specialist training will ensure that you know how to read and complete the MAR chart correctly. It ensures that all medication is recorded in the correct way to adhere to local and national policies and procedures. •Administration of a wrong medicine to a wrong service user – By ensuring that you have specialist training in administering medication, you are reducing the likelihood of administering the wrong medicine to the wrong service user. You need to be able to identify the correct service user and administer the correct medication. Incorrect or insufficient training can result in the wrong medication being given.

•Administration at wrong time – By ensuring that you have specialist training in administering medication, you are reducing the likelihood of administering at the wrong time. Certain medications need to be given at certain times. This will be recorded on the medication and on the MAR chart. Such training ensures you know how to check and follow when medication needs to be given. All of the above points can also be the result of someone being inadequately trained. By ensuring that the trained nurse is responsible for the medicines, you are putting the welfare of the individuals’ first.

It prevents such errors occurring and thus putting individual’s at risk. 10. 3Explain the consequences of handling medication without specialist training Handling medication without training is illegal and does not follow company protocol. Through lack of training, you run the risk of administering incorrect medicine and dosage. At its best, this can be inconvenient for the Company and the service user. At its worst, this can prove fatal for the service user or can create serious adverse effects. Through specialist training, you are taught how to record the administration of medication.

Without such training, you are running the risk of not recording and not knowing how to record medication. This can have serious consequences. The next person to administer medication may not know they have previously had some if it is not recorded. This can result in an over dose for the service user and can have serious implications. At its worst, this can result in death. Through lack of training, you may not know about medications and their dosage. You may also not be aware of side effects and adverse reactions. Such implications can result in further illness.

It can cause the service user’s health to deteriorate and can have long term health effects. Worst case scenario is that it can result in death. Insufficient training puts the safety and welfare of the service users at risk. They are in your care, and their health and well-being needs to be paramount at all times. Also, through inconsistency and lack of training, service user’s confidence can be affected. It can be said that they are putting their lives in your hands. They need to know that you are competent and knowledgeable in what you are doing.

They need to know that they can trust you and that you know what you are doing. Lack of training can result in service user’s not trusting you to give them their medication. This can have serious implications on their health and is it means that are not being treated appropriately and can make health conditions worse. By administering medication without lack of training, you are not complying with the Care Quality Commission (CQC) essential standards of quality and safety. You are also not complying with Company policies and procedures. You are risking your career and job.

Through the company, you can face disciplinary action which can lead to dismissal. Through the Care Quality Commission you can face prosecution and losing your pin so that you are unable to work as a Nurse again. The consequences of handling medication without specialist training are huge and can have life changing results. To handle and administer medication, you need to ensure that you are appropriately trained and following company and national protocol. You can cause serious health implications and even death to others, and can face loss of job or prosecution yourself.

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