Understand the Expected Pattern of Development for Children
Emotional development is the expected growth pattern of a child’s ability to feel and express an increasing range of emotions. Social and behavioural development is the expected growth pattern of a child’s ability to relate to others around them. Birth – 3 years At this stage baby’s cry to communicate their needs, they solely depend upon their parents carers for their needs to be met.
Babies will smile at faces they recognise of trusted carers/ parents, but show reservations of unknown adults: by around 6 months old. At this age they respond to games of peek-a-boo, and reach out for familiar faces and wish to be picked up/ held etc and communicate with mum and dad through babbling. By 1 year a child will be able to distinguish varying members within its family and act socially with them. At this stage a child will know its own name, obey simple instructions. By 18-months- 2 years a child’s social & emotional development has come a long way, they will show empathy to an upset/ sibling/ family member and try to console them.
They will show frustration or have tantrums if their needs are not met, but on the other side of the coin are capable of being loving and responsive. By 3 years old a child will have gained a certain amount of physical and emotional control, they will feel secure when left away from main carer, they are able to interpret situations and behave accordingly. They have the ability to now share and take turns, and use language to express themselves rather than communication through tantrums and physical outbursts. 4-7 years By the age of 4 most children will have started school/nursery and meet a variety of new people.
They are now capable of being very sociable and play within groups of children; they will also mix well with either sex groups. They will have acquired a degree of independence but still turn to carer for comfort when hurt/tired/ill. By the age of 5 most children will confidently task to most people, and show good overall control of emotions at this stage of Development a child will prefer to play rivalry games instead of team games, and want to win showing a desire to excel. By the age of 6 a child will show signs of independence from their family/ parents and their peer groups become increasingly significant to them. -12 Years By this development stage a child may be more aware of themselves and the world round them.
They may become very aware of the groups they socialise in and a need to be wanted/ liked/accepted by a group is deemed most important. By the age of 10 a child may be much more independent and be capable of making their own decisions, and be able to express their individuality and views. At the age of 11, a child will have started secondary education, at this stage all their social skills will by put to the test with making new friends and mixing in new mixed sex friendship groups. 2-16 years By this stage of a child’s development, they become aware of many new emotions and behavioural patterns.
They may become aware of an interest of the opposite sex, also school life becomes more pressured with exams, and this can cause a sense of being overwhelmed and anxious. A teenage child will become confrontational with adults and disagree with parents views. Mood swings will appear at home, and a child may tend to spend more time with their peers, giving them a sense of belonging and understanding. 16-19 years
By the time a child/ young adult reaches the age of leaving school and starting college/ sixth form, they will show a great deal of independence from their parents they are now capable of making their own choices and are sociably and behaviourally and emotionally maturing. They will tend to go through less conflict with parents and become sociable again. Their capacity for understanding who they are and where they fit on society is beginning to take shape, and with their new found independence and emotional feelings, they gain a deeper capacity for sharing and developing more intimate relationships. Intellectual & communication
In this early stage of development, babies learn how to communicate with others in a pre-lingual stage. Within this development babies quickly learn to communicate with their carers, so by the age of 12 months, most babies will understand what is being said to them and will start communication by pointing to/ or showing the carer the object/ or need they desire. 0-3 years A baby at this stage can recognise different tones of voice, they will coo and gurgle when content, communicate through crying to show hunger/ tiredness or distress. By around 6 months they will be able to babble short sounds etc “da da “ “ma ma”, and laugh and squeal.
They may also have recognised emotion in parent’s voice. By around 9 months a child should be able to imitate simple words and pointing begins. Their babbling will begin to reflect the intonation of speech. By 12 months babies babble will become more tuneful and inventive. They will use gestures to ask for things, and respond to basic instructions i. e. come here and clap hands. At around 15 months this being the linguistic stage a child will be able to form words that they will use consistently, they will them progress to holophrases, using single word to convey many meanings.
By 18 months a child may be able to put two words together i. e. bye bye, they may also use telegraphic speech i. e. ” mama come”. By the age of 2 children quickly learn new words. They will also use plurals i. e. ” dogs” and make errors such as drawed, horses. Sentences become longer but still telegraphic speech. By the ager of 3, generally speech is understood by people outside of the family unit. They can now form sentences and can understand and sing nursery rhymes and will often commentate to themselves during periods of play 4-7 years
By this stage vocabulary is extensive; the child will use longer and more complex sentences. They are usually able to narrate stories and in sequence of events. Their language skills now allow them to collaborate, argue and share. They can also begin to describe feelings. And questioning is at its peak i. e. what? why? whom? Where ? Speech is fully intelligible with a few minor incorrect usages. By the age of 5 a child will have a wide vocabulary and use it appropriately. Their questioning will become more precise and include shapes, colours and numbers.
By 6-7years a child will become aware of mistakes in other peoples speech and Correct them. They will also become aware of the world around them spatially i. e. time intervals and seasons of the year. 8-12 years By this stage a child will be fluent in speech and perhaps even bilingual due to family’s culture. They will show few lapses in grammar and hold meaningful conversations with those around them, and discuss their own ideas confidently. Knowledge is expansive at this stage with learning new ideas and school curriculum covering a wider range of topics of learning 2-16 years.
From the age of 12-16 years a child’s intellect is tested to the full. At school they will be taking sats/ exams and starting gsce`s. here their communication diminishes and intellect takes over. They become communative with their peers, but lack any comms with adults; they become increasingly aware of likes and dislikes and are fully established in their social roles. 16-19 years At this stage of development a child’s intellect and communication is at its peak. They are perhaps going to sixth form or college, and will be making career choices.
Also meeting new peers, and interacting with adults on another level i. e. tutors and parents. They are now fully aware of the social and economic ways of the world, and will hold themselves accountable in society. Physical Children’s physical development relates to the body’s increase in skills involving movement. To indicate gross motor skills and fine motor skills. 0-3 years At birth babies are lacking significant movement. By around 306 months a baby should be able to hold its head up. By 6-9 months a baby should be able to roll over onto its back, and may be able to sit up aided.
Between 9-12 months the child should be able to maintain a sitting position and will transfer objects from one hand to another. It may also be able to stand with the aid of furniture at 12-18 months. At 18 months a child may well be able to walk unaided, play with bigger toys and be able to pick them up without falling over. The child may be able to tackle going up and down the stairs holding onto a rail. Balance is now a key role in physical development, hence the great joy of jumping with both feet. By the age of 2 the child may be able to run and walk up and down stairs two at a time. -6 years
By this stage a child of 3`s coordination skills are improving and here we see gross motor skills developing such as running/ climbing/ kicking / riding bikes catching and throwing a ball. Fine motor skills her consist of the ability to write i. e. holding pencils. They should be able to dress themselves, tie shoe laces and button up buttons. Use scissors at school and brushing of teeth should all be gotten to grips with at this stage too. 7-11 years By the age of 7-11 years a child’s physical development involves a lot of body changes. Increased body strength being one of them.
By now they have mastered balance and co-ordination. Their concentration pattern is more increased and the child will start to develop talents in different areas i. e. musical instrument, art, sports. They are able to read full stories and writing becomes joined up. 12-16 years A child’s physical development between the ages of 12-16 years changes rapidly, with factors such as puberty, growth spurts and hormones. Their bodies will be going through physical changes too with body development. Weight can gain or be lost in both sexes. Their fine motor skills developing all the time, through skills such as art, I.
T and textiles. And their gross motor skills developing through sport i. e. football, basketball and hockey. 16-19 years At this stage of development a child’s physical appearance or image is very important to them. Again issues or weight gain and lose playing major role through hormones. Between these ages a young person may also find the opposite sex a major attraction, hence the self conscious image. Between 18-19 years a young persons appearance is sustaining, they are more self aware, and aware of the opposite sex and may well be sexually active. They now have a wide and varied set of gross and fine motor skills.
Explain the difference between sequence of development and rate of development and why the difference is important. Children will develop at different rates, information and sources we receive are only suggested guidelines. The guidelines help us to monitor what children can and can’t do at certain stages in their lives. It also helps us to plan effectively, to ensure the child gets the attention they need, in any areas the child finds challenging. Physical development follows a definite pattern sequence, i. e. a baby would have to first learn to hold their own head up, before they would be able to sit up.
While the sequences are common amongst most children, what often changes is the rate in which they develop the skills they need. It is paramount we monitor a child’s sequence and rate of development, in order for us to determine any kind of assistance they might need, and whom they may be referred to for this help. Cross reference with Q. 1 1. 1 Q. 2 2. 1 & 2. 2 Explain how children and young peoples development is influenced by a range of personal and external factors. There are a number of reasons why personal and external factors may influence a child’s development. Background.
Children may come from a varied range of family environments. Cultures and circumstances may influence a child’s development in the fact their parents may come from a foreign country and have different language s and religious beliefs. All this may affect the child as they may be taught one thing at school, and a different thing at home, which may confuse the child, i. e. talk one language at home, and talk another outside the home, causing problems with language barriers. Health. A child may suffer from poor health or even a physical disability i. e. missing limbs, hearing impairment.
Pupils lacking fine and gross motor skills etc. , these children will need extra support in their learning development. A child may also suffer from mental disability/ impairment, i. e. dyslexia, dyspraxia, A. D. H. D, autism, Aspergers. All of which require specialists help, with referrals to correct department to help and aid the child with their learning plan and development. Health can also be affected by low income families and a wide range of socio-economic factors i. e. access to quality health services, premises selling food at affordable prices etc. he individual’s emotional development may also be impacted depending on their disability/ illness.
It is paramount the carer/ teacher in school life are aware of these situations and circumstances, so the child can get the support they need. Environmental Different circumstances or environment, to which children are exposed to during early years to adolescence will also affect their development. A family may go through significant changes i. e. illness, family break ups, moving house, even changing countries. these factors will all have a major impact on their development, and children will respond in different ways.
Many environmental factors can affect a child’s ability to development, other countries as well as our own suffer from environmental disaster, such as pollution when drinking water is sullied and food is scarce, leading to malnutrition. Disasters such as land slides are suffered both here and abroad i. e. the children trapped in a school in Wales. Children can also affect the path of their own development, as in the choices they make in life can affect this i. e. As the child grows up they may think that they are making the right decisions about their future, but the child could end up making the wrong decision, i. . truancy, dropping subjects/ dropping out of education.
This could affect everything they have worked toward. Emotional transition Within a family a child may have lost a family member, if the child has a close connection with this person, it may be hard for them to understand what has happened, and this may lead to them being withdrawn, they may see those around them in the family being upset, and not wanting to talk about the lose as it is upsetting, this can lead to the child becoming emotionally unbalanced and becoming disruptive in school settings, as they do not know how to vent their emotions.
We must here learn to listen to the child and help them understand their feelings. Physiological A child going through puberty is a major change of development. This transition for a child is hard, and as the process may be one that may progress over a long period of time, the child will need support and reassurance of what is happening to them is normal and that everyone goes through this transition. Intellectual
A child may find the transition of going through the change from nursery to primary school a challenge. Due to the change in new routines, i. e. a child moving from key stage 1, whom is given more or less help every step of the way, now moves onto key stage 2, where they have to take responsibility for more day to day tasks, and may find it hard to cope. This is where the teacher/ T. A can support them in their needs.