Unemployment research

Unemployment From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Unemployment (or Joblessness), as defined by the International Labour Organization, occurs when people are without Jobs and they have actively sought work within the past four weeks. [2] The unemployment rate is a measure of the prevalence of unemployment and it is calculated as a percentage by dividing the number of unemployed individuals by all individuals currently in the labour force.

In a 2011 news story, BusinessWeek reported, “More than 200 million people globally are out of work, a record high, as almost two-thirds of advanced economies and half of eveloping countries are experiencing a slowdown in employment growth, the group There remains considerable theoretical debate regarding the causes, consequences and solutions for unemployment. Classical economics, neoclassical economics and the Austrian School of economics argue that market mechanisms are reliable means of resolving unemployment. citation needed] These theories argue against interventions imposed on the labour market from the outside, such as unionization, minimum wage laws, taxes, and other regulations that they claim discourage the hiring of workers. Keynesian economics emphasizes the cyclical ature of unemployment and recommends interventions it claims will reduce unemployment during recessions. This theory focuses on recurrent supply shocks that suddenly reduce aggregate demand for goods and services and thus reduce demand for workers.

Keynesian models recommend government interventions designed to increase demand for workers; these can include financial stimuli, publicly funded Job creation, and expansionist monetary policies. Georgists, half a century before Keynes, also noted the cyclical nature but focused on the role of speculation in land which pushes up economic rent. Because rent must be paid mostly from wages (yield of labor) but also from interest (yield of capital), economic activity cannot be sustained in the rent bubble, which finally burst resulting in recessions or depressions.

Once the speculation is wrung out of system the cycle of land speculation begins again. [4] Henry George therefore advocated the taxation of land values (Single Tax) to stop land speculation and in order to eliminate taxation of labor and capital. George opposed land nationalization and Marx’s theories. Marxism focuses on the relations between the owners and the workers, whom, it claims, the wners pit against one another in a constant struggle for Jobs and higher wages. The unemployment produced by this struggle is said to benefit the system by reducing wage costs for the owners.

For Marxists the causes of and solutions to unemployment require abolishing capitalism and shifting to socialism or communism. In addition to these three comprehensive theories of unemployment, there are a few categorizations of unemployment that are used to more precisely model the effects of unemployment within the economic system. The main types of unemployment include structural unemployment which focuses on structural problems in the conomy and inefficiencies inherent in labour markets including a mismatch between the supply and demand ot laborers witn necessary skill sets .

Structural arguments emphasize causes and solutions related to disruptive technologies and globalization. Discussions of frictional unemployment focus on voluntary decisions to work based on each individuals’ valuation of their own work and how that compares to current wage rates plus the time and effort required to find a Job. Causes and solutions for frictional unemployment often address barriers to entry and wage rates. Behavioral economists highlight individual biases in decision making and often nvolve problems and solutions concerning sticky wages and efficiency wages.

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