United States History Essay Research Paper Chief
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United States History Essay, Research Paper
Chief Joseph: When he became head of the Nez Perce Indian folk in the American Northwest in 1871, Joseph led his people in an unsuccessful opposition to white colonists who were impounding land. The folk was ordered to travel. Joseph agreed, but when three of his folk killed a group of colonists, he attempted to get away to Canada with his followings.
Safety Valve Thesis: This averment stated that as immigrants came to the eastern United States during the late 19th century and & # 8220 ; polluted & # 8221 ; American civilization, citizens of the U.S. would hold the West as a & # 8220 ; safety valve & # 8221 ; to which they could travel in order to regenerate their pure Americanism.
Homestead Act, 1862: This act cut up Western public lands into many little retentions for the free husbandmans. It was originally started by Andrew Johnson as the first homestead measure but met strong resistance by Southern Representatives and hence could non be passed until the sezession of the Southern States during the Civil War.
Dawes Severality Act, 1887: It was proposed by Henry L. Dawes, and was passed in 1887. It was designed to reform what well-meaning but nescient Whites perceived to be the failings of Indian life & # 8211 ; the deficiency of private belongings, the absence of a Christian based faith, the mobile traditions of the Indians, and the general instability in their manner of life & # 8212 ; by turning Indians into husbandmans. The chief point of the jurisprudence was to stress handling Indians every bit persons as opposed to members in a folk, or discreteness.
Helen Hunt Jackson, A Century of Dishonor: This book, by Jackson, was a discourse refering the predicament of American Indians published in 1881. She gathered information sing American Indians and their lives while functioning on a federal committee look intoing the intervention of Indians. Jackson besides wrote Ramona refering the same subject.
TheGrange: During the decennary of the 1870s, U.S. husbandmans were beset with jobs of high costs, debts, and little net incomes. the husbandmans made their grudges known through the Granger Movement. Membership peaked in the mid-1870s. There was small the husbandmans could make refering monetary values. Merely in 1877 did the Supreme Court regulation that provinces could modulate concerns of a public nature. To antagonize unfair concern patterns, the husbandmans were urged to get down co-ops such as grain lifts, creameries, and shops.
Farmers Alliance: This confederation was a political organisation created to assist contend railway maltreatments and to take down involvement rates. It called for authorities ordinance of the economic system in order to right their greivanes. It was founded in New York in 1873, and consisted of the Northwest Farmers & # 8217 ; Alliance in the North and the National Farmers & # 8217 ; Alliance and Independent Union in the South. They failed to unify, nevertheless, and in 1892 gave manner to the Populist party.
Billion-Dollar Congress: The first in peacetime to allow about this sum-gave birth to a bumper harvest of expensive legislative babiews. When the Democrats won control of the House two old ages subsequently, they paid Reed the compliment of following some of his reforms for speedier action.
Pension Act: Began by the Billion-Dollar Congress, it showered pensions on all Union Civil War veterans who had served for 90 yearss and who were now unable to make manual labour. Between 1891 and 1895 the host of pensionaries was therefore rasied from 676,000 to 970,000, and by the clip Harrison left office in 1893, the one-year measure had shot up from $ 81 million to $ 135 million. Thus was faintly foreshadowed the government-financed public assistance province of the 20th century. Populist Party, 1892: The Populist party, or people & # 8217 ; s party, was a party that represented the & # 8220 ; common man. & # 8221 ; It was created towards the terminal of the 19th century. Some of their ends included making postal nest eggs Bankss, ordaining in-migration limitation, puting a calibrated income revenue enhancement and restricting the presidential term to a individual six-year term. The Populist platform represented positions of husbandmans in the West. The Omaha platform of 1892 nominative James Weaver of Iowa for president.
James B. Weaver: An United States legislator and outstanding figure during the Populist motion, he served as a congresswoman from 1879 to 1781 and 1885 to 1889. He was the presidential campaigner of the Greenback and People s parties in 1892. Weaver was besides a former civil war general.
William Jennings Bryan: Despite the fact that he was defeated three times for the presidential term of the United States, William Jennings Bryan, the chief figure of the Populist party, molded public sentiment as few leaders have done. A Sur
prise to the populace, he polled many ballots during the 1896 election, which may hold been a direct consequence of his “Cross of Gold Speech.” For many old ages he was the leader of the Democratic party, and it was his influence that won the Democratic presidential nomination for Wilson in 1912.
Marcus Hanna: He was an industrialist who became convinced that the public assistance of industry, and hence the state, was bound by the lucks of the Republican party. To foster his ends he waged the most expensive political run the state had of all time seen to acquire William McKinley elected president in 1896. He besides served in the Senate.
Muckrakers: Those American authors who early in the twentieth century wrote both fiction and nonfiction to expose corruptness in concern and political relations were called the mudslingers. Muckraker was a term foremost used by President Theodore Roosevelt in 1906. They were given this name because of their inclination to & # 8220 ; spread the sludge around. & # 8221 ;
Lincoln Steffens, The Shame of the Cities: An high American reformist and journalist, Joseph Lincoln Steffens, was a leader of the mudslingers. He wrote a series of articles that documented corruptness in American metropoliss, asseverating that some metropoliss were run by political foremans who remained in power with the aid of powerful business communities.
Square Deal: Roosevelt, on a talking circuit against the Northern Securities Company, called for a & # 8220 ; square deal. & # 8221 ; This progressive construct denounced particular intervention for the big capitalists and is the indispensable component to his trustbusting attitude. This trade embodied the belief that all corporations must function the general public good.
Upton Sinclair, The Jungle: Sinclair was an American author and reformist who wrote The Jungle. This book exposed the insanitary working conditions in the stockyards of Chicago, finally taking to an probe of both on the job conditions and the conditions of nutrient. It finally led to the passage of the Pure Food Act.
Newlands Reclamation Act, 1902: Roosevelt drafted the Newlands Reclamation Act when he noticed that decennaries of rapid industrial growing had destroyed much of the limited natural resources of the land. It insured that all natural resources would be managed by experts. Funding came from public-land gross revenues and was used to construct irrigation undertakings.
Hepburn Act, 1906: The Hepburn Act, in concurrence with the Elkins Act, granted the Interstate Commerce Commission plenty power to modulate the economic system. It allowed the ICC to put cargo rates and, in an effort to cut down the corruptness in the railway industry, to necessitate a unvarying system of accounting by regulated transit companies.
Meat Inspection Act: The Meat Inspection Act was passed by Roosevelt as a strong response to Sinclair & # 8217 ; s book depicting the conditions of nutrient every bit good as wartime dirts in 1898 refering spoiled transcribed meats. It created rigorous healthful demands for meat, began a quality evaluation system, and provisioned for a federal section to inspect meat.
New Freedom & # 8211 ; The Democratic Party, to which Wilson belonged, had a past history of 45 ballots without a nomination. To get the better of this stumbling block the Democrats united with the Progressives, running under a via media platform. Wilson s & # 8220 ; New Freedom & # 8221 ; run was concerned with progressive plans similar to both parties. He did non, nevertheless, support trustbusting in the same manner that Roosevelt did. To him, all large concern was morally evil and should be broken up.
Sixteenth Amendment: The Sixteenth Amendment, ratified in 1913, is an obvious index to the Progressive epoch in which it was passed. It authorized the income revenue enhancement thereby leting the Underwood-Simmons Duty of 1913 to take down many duties. This amendment invalidated an earlier Supreme Court determination naming the income revenue enhancement was unconstitutional.
Federal Reserve Act: The Federal Reserve Act was a via media designed to stabilise the currency in the US. It split the US into 12 parts with one Federal bank in each part. Commercial Bankss bought stock from this bank. The price reduction rate at which the federal bank lent the money determined the involvement rate.
Clayton Antitrust Act: The Clayton Act was designed to clear up the Sherman Antitrust Act in footings of new economic issues that had arisen. Practices such as local price-cutting and monetary value favoritism were made illegal. The right of brotherhoods to strike, boycott, and lookout was besides confirmed. This act would hold been labour s Magna Carta had it been followed, but unfavourable tribunal readings rendered many of its pro-labor subdivisions powerless without farther statute law.