Untitled Essay Research Paper From Village to
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From Village to City Over the old ages of history, there have been many civilisations. We will look at the earliest of all civilisations known to adult male. From Village to City began in 8000BC and spanned all the manner into 3000BC. Throughout this study we will look at the 6 cardinal characteristics of this civilisation as outlined in our schoolroom treatments, and hope to convey what we have learned in a utile, and interesting manner. The development of a metropolis: The first metropolis to be built was Jericho, in the Middle East Map: This map is a image of what the division of land would hold looked like in those times. Clearly identified here, it is possible to see Babylon, Ur, and Eridu. ? Microsoft Encarta? 95. ( Appendix 1 ) . Sumer at this clip evolved into the largest city state, established by a people known as the Ubaidians. The development of the metropolis, allowed for rapid population growing due to the copiousness of nutrient. Sheep, caprine animal and hogs had been originally domesticated for usage as nutrient, non as beginnings of vesture. The chief economic activity during this clip was trade and swap. Obsidian, a volcanic glass was fashioned into razor crisp tools and arms. It was besides used as trade. Peoples who lived near Obsidian sedimentations frequently risked their lives to roll up it and finally barter it off for nutrient or money. Obsidian comes from vents and was a sort of glass, the merely of the times. The value of Obsidian was great, and so hence was the supply and demand. Salt, ore, Cu, and soaprock were accepted trade stuffs around 8000BC. Most of the Village to City civilisation took topographic point during the Cu age, when Cu was mined and used for many intents. Trade developed between different metropoliss, Jericho, Sumer, Adab, Eridu, Isin, Kish, Kullab, Lagash, Larsa, Nippur and Ur. Most of the trade consisted of farm animal and other things such as arms and nutrient. Sumerians constructed big temples called Ziggurats. These temples were the focal point of spiritual activities in towns. They were made of sundried clay bricks that eroded easy. Not many of these remain today. Near 4000BC, urban societies included, husbandmans, Herders, merchandisers, craftsmans, priests, debitors, creditors and societal leaders. Economic authorization in that clip took the signifier of revenue enhancement aggregation, creditors and debitors. Civil authorization was created with the usage of Hammurabi codification. Hammurabi Code is in a manner the articulation of values. It reflects the manner they believed that affairs should be handled from their times. This codification is a aggregation of the Torahs and edicts of the Babylonian King Hammurabi. King Hammurabi? s codification covers everything from loans, sedimentations and personal hurt to domestic belongings and household rights. It contains no Torahs for faith, but the condemnable jurisprudence is comparable to the Semitic jurisprudence of & # 8220 ; an oculus for an eye. & # 8221 ; This codification was peculiarly humane for its clip. However, leftovers of King Hammurabi? s Code of Laws are still present in today? s society. Many people believe that the Capital Punishment contention day of the months back to King Hammurabi. Capital Punishment has been outlawed in Canada, nevertheless it is still in consequence as the chief beginning of disincentive and for cleaning up the streets in many states i.e. the U.S.A. ( in some provinces ) . Division of Labor: Since there had been husbandmans, merchandisers, etc. , a division of labor was present. As bow said, there were many occupation functions that had to be fulfilled, for the society to map. There was no existent specific information sing the usage of gender functions. However, there were certain functions that were male merely, such as huntsman and husbandman, and other that were designated for females ; namingly cookery and cleansing. Class construction developed as the metropoliss grew larger. Leaderships and civil authorization were in a higher category than that of the regular citizens. In this clip period besides there was bondage. Slaves, to which subsequently became more normally known as? Serfs? . Development of Writing: Wedge: Given above is some text which has been written in the signifier of Cuneus. It is engraved in a rock tablet as they had non discovered paper. ? Microsoft Encarta? 95. ( Appendix 2 ) . The first signifier of composing known, was cuneiform. In cuneiform each symbol represented a word. This authorship was developed around 3000BC, and lasted until the first century. With this development it allowed for the continuity in beliefs and Hel
ped keep business and legal records. The same writing gave us a very good insight into their culture, and way of life today. Cuneus, Latin for wedge, was given this name because the symbols appear wedge shaped. This writing has been found on clay, stone, metals and wax. Earlier forms of these were pictographs, but this became too difficult, which led to the use of lines instead. Cuneiform also helped with the continuity of traditions, and passing on of heritage. Art: Urn: This Urn clearly shows the importance that art played in their lives. By this time period they had already invented the potters wheel. ? Microsoft Encarta ?95. (Appendix 3). Art was very popular during these times. This terra-cotta urn demonstrated that this culture enjoyed arts as an entertainment, use for burial or as barter. Architecture was demonstrated with the early construction of Ziggurats. House walls were plastered and sometimes painted. These same Ziggurats were used for worshipping in, and was considered a sacred place. Technological Advancements: The Wheel: The artifacts above are the actual first wheels that were ever invented. After the first? wheels came more advanced theories. ? Microsoft Encarta ?95. (Appendix 4). The wheel originated in early Mesopotamia around 3000BC. It was a great technological achievement. This allowed for easier travel as the wheeled cart replaced the wedge as a means of transport. Also, with the invention of the wheel came a wider trade area, increasing a civilizations reach into other areas. Seen here in the above picture, are some of the earliest models of the wheel known to man. The very first wheel that was constructed was made with the use of ball bearings on the inner portion of the wheel, which is actually a quite advanced theory. Ball bearings are commonly used today for many things. Also, Grass was harvested for seeds, with a sickle made up of flint blades set into wood. Obsidian was fashioned into sharp arrowheads and weapons. Rocks were used to crush grain for baking, and hammers were used to construct buildings. All theses tools allowed for better harvests and shaping of the environment. The Environmental Impact: Tools: Given in this picture are many of the early tools used for cultivating, farming, and grinding wheat. ? Microsoft Encarta ?95. (Appendix 5). Village to City populations affected the environment negatively. They over-cultivated the land, when they discovered harvesting. In some cases this was so severe, that it instigated the process of desertification. Since the technological level was not as sophisticated as other civilizations, the environment was not polluted, just over-used. This ultimately led to the downfall of some cities. It became increasingly harder to grow because the land was tired and could no longer produce the proper vitamins the plants needed to survive. Some cultures had to rely solely on the barter system and livestock reproduction for food. Conclusion: Many aspects of the Village to City civilization can be found still in today?s modern society. One of the most valuable inventions was the wheel, presently we see wheels everywhere. We would not have cars, planes, computers, literally anything can be derived from these early ancestors. The people in that time made many important discoveries, many of which are being used to date. Furthermore, if it weren?t for the advancements that were made up from our ancestors of long ago, we no doubt not be where we are today. We must ask ourselves, when they invented, did they comprehend the repercussions of their developments? In other words, did they realize that they were changing history as we know it forever. If it were not for these early inventors surely we would not be as advanced as we are now. Bibliography: 1. Davis, M. Dale. Civilizations in History. Toronto: Oxford University Press Canada ?, 1947. 2. Brown, Dale and Edmond White. The First of Men. 2nd edition Toronto: Time-Life? Books ? 1973. 3. Aiello, Leslie. The Origins of Man. 2nd Edition. Scarborough: Prentice-Hall ? Books ?, 1982. 4. Gibson, Dwight L., Terry G. Murphy, Fredrick E. Jarman and Derek Grant. All About Law. 3rd Edition. Toronto: John Wiley & Sons Canada ?, 1990. 5. “Sumerian Civilization”, and “Sumerian Culture”. Microsoft Encarta. CD-ROM. Micromedia. ?, 1994. 6. Haberman, Arthur and Ian Hundey. Civilizations. Toronto: Gage Books ?, 1993.