Untitled Essay Research Paper The City of
Only $13.90 / page
Untitled Essay, Research Paper
The City of Today Glorious, glorious England. As the Empire spreads some say & # 8220 ; so does its glorification & # 8221 ; ; others mumble of the monetary value which we pay for our illustriousness. Many of us Londoners have read, if non discussed, the challenging argument transpirating between Sir Andrew Ure and Sir James Phillips Kay. Are the metropoliss of great England genuinely representative of the gems in Her Majesty & # 8217 ; s Crown? Or are they the discoloration of development and maltreatment that some have proclaimed? Sir James Phillips Kay, an M.D. at Edinburgh and the Secretary to the Manchester Board of Health, has late published a work titled, & # 8220 ; The Moral And Physical Conditions of the Working-Class Employed in Cotton Manufacturing in Manchester. & # 8221 ; ( Kay/Ure Debate, Handout ) He argues rather persuasively about those hapless wretches populating in the most horrid of conditions. Half the incrimination he attributes to the Irish and the other half to the environment of an industrialized metropolis. The Irish immigrants have brought to Manchester a system called & # 8220 ; cottier farming & # 8221 ; . Sir James argues that this system is responsible for the & # 8220 ; demoralization and brutality & # 8221 ; of the working-class. If that is non bad plenty, the murphy has been introduced as a chief article of nutrient. Influenced by the Irish subsistence life, the working-class are abandoning those values which promote increasing comfort. They apparently have given up the hope of improvement and adopted hopelessness. Sir James does good in his description of the life conditions of the on the job category is populating in. The mere idea of such agony and wretchedness is flooring to the psyche. The job Kay argues, is caused by combinations of hapless life and on the job conditions, deficiency of instruction, influence by a lesser civilization and the presence of great immorality. This late published work is a supplication to the Capitalist, to convert him to concern himself with his ( & # 8221 ; The City & # 8221 ; continued ) Vol.2 Page 2 ____________________________________________________________________ workers. Andrew Mearns, another outstanding chap on these affairs goes into even greater item in his work, & # 8220 ; The Bitter Cry of Outcast London & # 8221 ; . Making a survey of our metropolis, he has reported, with amazing item, that the crud nowadays in Manchester can be found in this metropolis! Mr. Mearns makes his statement to the church in his call to unite and fight this turning wretchedness together. He cites illustrations of immorality, poorness and heart-breaking wretchedness. His call besides addresses the demand for the province to step in on the behalf of the administrations seeking to promote the working-classes & # 8217 ; wretchedness. What can be done for the motherless kids, diseased and indisposed siblings and the hapless forced into larceny for foul boodle? Nothing! Yes, that is right. We are to make nil. Sir Andrew Ure, an M.D. , who teaches in the university at Glasgow is a advocate of this controversial head set. Traveling to these assorted & # 8220 ; awful & # 8221 ; topographic points, Sir Andrew came to a wholly different decision. First, the workers agony is being greatly exaggerated. Upon sing these & # 8220 ; horror zones & # 8221 ; ( mills ) , both on proclaimed and unheralded visits, no such extremes were found. Alternatively of the happening the black image Sir James and Mr. Mearns painted, Ure found something rather the antonym. Children drama outside in resort areas during their interruptions, and mills provide a safe oasis for the kids from the ill-use of their bad parents. Second, the awful nutrient state of affairs is an hyperbole every bit good. The sum of nutrient given to the mill workers is sufficient. It is comparable, if non exceling to that nutrient consumed in the rural communities from where the on the job category came from. What is to be the decision of this acrimonious statement? one thing is certain, the Kay/Ure argument will go on with us every bit long as we have mills with a on the job category. This much can be assured. nineteenth Century Evangelical Christianity In England Therefore go and make adherents of all states, baptising them in the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit. Matthew 28:19 Religion was an of import aspect of the British Victorian society. It molded public sentiment, dictated ethical motives and values, and created societal divisions. The dominant faith of the middle-class during this clip was Evangelical Christianity. This essay will discourse the relationship between Evangelicalism and the middle-class. It will besides reason how Evangelicalism affected the attitudes towards different races and the function of the British imperium in the universe. Evangelicalism was the strongest ideological influence nowadays in the Victorian Age. This spiritual motion, a merchandise of the Church of England, was chiefly comprised of the middle-class middle class. In add-on, the leading of the Evangelical motion was greatly influential in political relations. As high-level members of the Whig party, they played a important portion in both policy devising in the authorities and set uping the party & # 8217 ; s power base.1 The most of import leaders of the Evangelicals were the Clapham Sect. They had two basic issues which acted as both a political platform and a societal order. The first issue concerned the abolishment of bondage and the slave trade in England. Many political conflicts were fought over the issue of bondage and its trade, but its abolishment in the early 1800s was a great political and societal triumph for the Evangelicals.2 The 2nd issue was its was the Evangelical transmutation of national morality. Catharine Hall argued that in the Clapham sect the & # 8220 ; concern was to redefine the available cultural norms and to promote a new earnestness and reputability in life. & # 8221 ; 3 This issue was supported and propagated as if it were a political run. Booklets, the media and church discourses in church were used to distribute this word. The greatest influence of Evangelicalism was on the British society itself. It set criterions for specifying household and home-life. A important facet of Evangelicalism was its definition of a adult female & # 8217 ; s function in society. They defined a adult females as a housewife, a married woman and a female parent. Detailed instructions on how to go a good & # 8220 ; mistress & # 8221 ; were easy accessible. An first-class illustration of this was the Hagiographas of Isabella Beeton. She went into item about what attitudes and habits a kept woman should hold. Mrs. Beeton argued that & # 8220 ; there is no more fruitful beginning of household discontent than a homemaker & # 8217 ; s badly-cooked dinners and untidy ways. & # 8221 ; 4 The Evangelicals rejected the impression of equality between the sexes. This Evangelical belief stemmed from a cardinal difference in the place of work forces and adult females. They were & # 8220 ; of course distinct & # 8221 ; .5 Evangelical philosophy besides argued that, although a adult female should be educated, it is for the exclusive intent of doing her a better married woman and mother.6 This thought of sexual equity and other extremist thoughts emerged from France even before Thursday
e infamous Revolution took place. The ideology coming from France both before and after the revolution was never accepted in England. The English bourgeoisie used the evangelical ideas to combat the foreign influence of the French Another important sphere of influence to Evangelicalism was the home. This arena was viewed as the building block of British society and culture. If national morality was to be changed, and in some cases created, then morality must be taught at home. The home “was one place where attempts could be made to curb sin.”7 Evangelicalism was not merely a national fad. As the Clapham Sect and other influential politicians began their campaign for the abolition of slavery, the slave trade was also targeted. This created the need for international intervention. It was not enough that slavery was to cease being a legal commodity of labor, or to be viewed as immoral. The entire industry of the slave trade was immoral. It was seen as a infringement on the individuals natural rights. In the book, White Dreams In Black Africa, the British empire began to target the African tradesmen who sold the slaves for Christianization. The plan was to export the greatest gift the English could give, thus creating a moral society, educated, and most importantly, the elimination of the slave trade. This gift was Evangelical Christianity. Africa was not the only target for evangelism. The Irish, who were predominantly catholic, united with England January 1, 1801. This unification caused Irish culture to be spread abroad in the working class of England. This spread of Irish influence was described by James Phillips Kay as, “debased alike by ignorance and pauperism”.8 He blamed the penetration of British culture by Irish values as the cause for the debauchery and immorality in the working class. This posed as a proverbial splinter in the lion’s paw for the evangelicals. This was brought to the attention of the middle-class moralists, which tried even harder to “persuade” their moral standards on the Irish. This persuasion came about by the merging of the Church of England with the Catholic Church of Ireland. The national church was Anglican by denomination and protestant. Needless to say, the Irish were not happy with the arrangements nor with the tithe that they were required to pay.9 In conclusion, England during its Victorian Age was tremendously influenced by religion. This influence dominated the society and culture of Britain. Its effect can be traced from the home and family life to the heirachy of the Parliament. The relationship between Evangelicalism and the English middle-class was strong. It also affected the Empire’s attitudes towards other races of people and defined some of its foreign policy concerning the slave trade. Ireland and England in the Active Union 1801-1920 January 1, 1801 Ireland joined with Britain in what is called the Active Union. The Active Union was an attempt of both states to integrate themselves on a political level. This union lasted approximately 120 years and was wrought with constant turmoil. A common term used by British Members of Parliament was the “Irish question”, or what to do with the Irish. The real question, however, concerned the identity of Ireland. Was Ireland a Integral part of Britain or another British colony? An analysis of this union revealed three basic areas of contention that shed light on this topic: politics, religion and economics. These areas show that parity between the two states was never achieved. This essay will address the question of identity in the special case of Ireland and its engagement with Britain during the Active Union. The political problem of the Active Union was the unequal nature of the agreement. Both parliaments passed the amendment which stipulated a dissolving of the Irish parliament. Upon this elimination of the Irish parliament, 100 elected M.P.s were sent to England for Irish representation. Parliament consisted of 615 members and required majority voting for bills to be passed. The Irish were proclaimed to be equal partners, but, in reality, were grossly out-numbered. However, no other colony possessed direct representation of its people in Parliament. The British law stated that only protestants were allowed to sit for government. Ireland’s population was 80 percent catholic and 20 percent protestant. This restriction of representation of the religious majority in Ireland furthered the inequality of the union. Ireland’s true political desires were neither voiced nor given much attention. In the Empire the head of government and most of the local government administrations were British and protestant. The English never attempted to make the Irish, English citizens, which would have given them equality in the Empire. In fact, the common British interpretation of their relationship with Ireland was understood in terms of occupation. These facts identified a severe disparity between the two states. The political aspects clearly pointed to a unique form of colonization of Ireland which was established with Ireland’s consent. Thus, Ireland as a political entity was, by all means and purposes, a colony of England. The area of Religion related directly to society . Religion helped form national identity, social order and morals/ethics. As previously stated Ireland’s population was predominantly catholic. Upon merging, parliament voted that the “national” church of the two states was to be the Church of England. This specific church was of the Anglican Denomination and protestant. As a result, the Irish population was subjected to mass conversion by the English. Further, the Church of England imposed a tithe on the Irish peasantry. This behavior was categorized as belligerent and was not congruent with the concept of equal partnership. To force religion or any other ideal on a society does not promote peace nor does it exemplify equality. The economic relationship between Ireland and England was severely unbalanced. Ireland’s economy is 80 percent agrarian. The Active Union caused no growth in the Irish Industrial sector. In fact, Irish industrial production, per capita, receded. Creating a free trade zone, which had been done by the Active Union agreement, put the ailing Irish industry into direct competition with England’s enormous industrial sector. Ireland joined the English empire voluntarily, assuming there would be an equitable relationship between the two states. The relationship was to provide political parity, religious cooperation and a mutual economic boom. Consequently, Ireland was reduced to colonial status by superior British power. Ireland was consider to be a colony of England politically, religiously and economically. The result of this union was 120 years of constant political strife and the eventual separation of the two states.