Abstract
Education is a powerful and pervasive agent for all round development, individual and social transformation. This alone can sustain culture and civilization. Education should lead to the development of integrated personality and inculcate values like patriotism. Spirit of national unity and a healthy appreciation of the rich variety of cultural expressions and promote a humanistic out look. Value education is a many-sided endeavor as value itself.

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The theory and practice of value education speak to emotional, rational and active selves of individuals. It helps individuals to resolve or accept conflicts with others and to realize their beliefs in action. The school authorities can organize various activities and functions for the purpose of inculcation of values in the students. The Head of the Institution and the Teaching Staff can play and organize a number of programmes for this purpose. Introduction

The values are taught by the Family, Society, Religious organizations, formal and informal education system and NGOs, etc. However, more stress on value education may be laid at the school level as these are the formative years of children. Child is the future of the country. We must develop them thoughtfully. The fulfillment of the basic needs leads to a higher set of socio-political needs and ultimately to the goal of the full flowering of human personality or total development and the release of the creative energies of every individual. In all these, values play an important role.

Education is a systematic attempt towards human learning. All learning is subjective and selfrelated. Educational activity starts with the individual. Knowledge should not be made remote from individual reality and irrelevant to the individual. Knowledge can never be ‘learned’. Knowledge is the Language in India www.languageinindia.com

13 : 2 February 2013
Jayanthi College of Education Seminar on Current Perspectives on Education Editors: P. Udayakumar, M.Sc., M.Phil., M.Ed., M.A., Ph.D. Candidate, Dr. M. Lekeshmanaswamy, Ph.D. and Dr. K. Dhanalakshmi, Ph.D. 211 fruit of experience and experience is the sensation of the individual. Individual experience is an internal happening and is the function of awareness.

Education is a powerful and pervasive

Page 2 Value-Oriented Education: Aims and Approaches Essay

agent for all round development and social transformation. This alone can sustain culture and civilization. Students can be enabled to acquire intellectual, democratic and aesthetic values and a deeply felt concern for the environment. The content of value-Oriented education should include: * Earning of knowledge and capacity to utilize it for the good of the Society.

* Democratic education
* Aesthetic education
* Course in ethics
* Spiritual education
* Provision for activities involving values.
Importance of Value Education
Education should lead to the development of integrated personality and inculcate values like patriotism. Spirit of national unity and a healthy appreciation of the rich variety of cultural expressions and promote a humanistic outlook.

Education is a cultural phenomenon or cultural action. It is demonstrated in the sense that the culture and education promote each other mutually. Each culture develops its own specific form for its illumination, tradition and development. In other words, culture creates education. Thus culture and education show themselves to be essential criteria for human existence as such. According to Jones (1979) “Education has to its content a particular objective-the independence of the individual, which essentially comprehends the capacity for responsibility and with the achievement of this, a particular end in time”.

Language in India www.languageinindia.com
13 : 2 February 2013
Jayanthi College of Education Seminar on Current Perspectives on Education
Editors: P. Udayakumar, M.Sc., M.Phil., M.Ed., M.A., Ph.D. Candidate, Dr. M. Lekeshmanaswamy, Ph.D. and Dr. K. Dhanalakshmi, Ph.D. 212 Views of Different Commissions Relating to Promotion of Values Several educationists in India and abroad have stressed the importance of promoting values through education, which is facing the crisis of character in different spheres of life. Radhakrishnan Commission (1949) held the view that in addition to the search for truth through scientific and scholarly pursuits an important task of education is a concern with values.

Kothari Commission (1964-66) with its emphasis on education’s role in national development includes among the functions of higher education cultivation of right interest, Attitudes, moral and intellectual values. The National Policy on Education (1986) observes, “The growing concern over the erosion of essential values and an increasing cynicism in the society has brought to focus the need for readjustments in the curriculum in order to make education a forceful tool for the cultivation of social and moral values”.

Aims of Value Oriented Education
The inseparable link between education and values is evident in the nature and aim of education. The primary task of education is the creative extension of knowledge but it is not the total task. If education has a relationship with the meaning of life then a proper value orientation of education becomes imperative. Morality depends on the orchestration of human caring, objective thinking and determined action. As a stimulus or motivation, caring seems to come from the gut.

To care about others is not only to want to consider their needs but to be able to do so. Thus caring involves both social motivation and social knowledge. Learning to care about people is learning to know about them as well. Caring is not totally removed from reassuring but reassuring is district from caring. The reassuring inherent in negotiating situations of moral problem or moral conflict is thus more complex than the reassuring involved in caring.

Value education is a many-sided endeavor as value itself. The theory and practice of value education speak to emotional, rational and active selves of individuals. It helps individuals to resolve or accept conflicts with others and to realize their beliefs in action. The value education does not deliver moral answers or prescribe practices but it is concerned to make morality a living concern for Language in India www.languageinindia.com

13 : 2 February 2013
Jayanthi College of Education Seminar on Current Perspectives on Education Editors: P. Udayakumar, M.Sc., M.Phil., M.Ed., M.A., Ph.D. Candidate, Dr. M. Lekeshmanaswamy, Ph.D. and Dr. K. Dhanalakshmi, Ph.D. 213 students to breathe moral life. It cultivates the moral sensitivity and sharpens reasoning of young people to create a more just society.

Approaches to Value Oriented Education
The development of values is not a very easy job. There is no magic formula, technique or strategy for the inculcation and development of values. The process of value education is a very complicated task influenced by a variety of hereditary and environmental factors. Generally value education programs involve direct, indirect or incidental approaches of value development. Direct, indirect or incidental approach refers to deliberate, systematic instruction in specially provided periods in the school time table. Direct approach means teaching values directly to others.

The approach may work for some time but many a time, it has its disadvantages. There may be reaction of the learners and sometimes they may give opposite opinions. That can prove rather more dangerous. Indirect approach of teaching values is more convenient, effective and lasting. Here teaching is done indirectly. The learner reads books and is able to catch up values of life here and there. In day to day life situations, he learns values through his exposure to the world. Formal and Informal Approach

When the learners are taught about difficult values by using formal ways, it may not leave much effect. Here, materials from books are taught with a motive of teaching certain values. Television is shown by using formal situations in order to inculcate different values. On the other hand, in informal approach, the learner or the receiver of values is unaware of values. He reads some material from the books and is able to pick up values of life incident by incident. This type of learning is of greater value and lasts longer.

Curricular and Co-curricular Approach

Language in India www.languageinindia.com
13 : 2 February 2013
Jayanthi College of Education Seminar on Current Perspectives on Education Editors: P. Udayakumar, M.Sc., M.Phil., M.Ed., M.A., Ph.D. Candidate, Dr. M. Lekeshmanaswamy, Ph.D. and Dr. K. Dhanalakshmi, Ph.D. 214 According to curricular approach separate syllabus is framed which aims at teaching values to the learners. The syllabus is prescribed and teaching is done to finish the syllabus. In the text-books, the values may be integrated in different chapters. Thus the students have curricular programmer which helps them to learn different values.

In co-curricular programmes, different activities such as singing, poem recitation, drama, debate, declamation contest, essay writing, competition etc are organized with a motive of inculcating different values of life in the students. There can be social service activities, physical exercise, games and sports. Different activities will help in the inculcation of variety of values in students. Ways and Means for the Inculcation of Values in Schools

The school authorities can organize various activities and functions for the purpose of inculcation of values in the students. The Head of the Institution and the Teaching Staff can play and organize a number of programmers for this purpose. A few such programmers are briefly explained here:

The text books prescribed for the students should contain stories with certain moral lessons. Teachers interested in writing text books for the children can help in making the text books of this type. Even supplementary readers or books for the children may be written by some teachers in collaboration with others and help in the achievement of this goal.

Prizes may be given to the deserving students for showing honesty, bravery, gallantry, truth etc. The award of prizes be given to the students in social gathering or functions. Declamation contest may be organized in the institution on themes related to values of life. The contest may be intra-school and inter-school. Participation in the contest by way of speakers and also by way of audience will have a good deal of impact. National service scheme (N.S.S) need to be popularized and its programme of activities be organized vigorously. The students interested in social service at the railway station, at the general bus stand, in the social festivals, is the hospitals, in the villages, Language in India www.languageinindia.com

13 : 2 February 2013
Jayanthi College of Education Seminar on Current Perspectives on Education Editors: P. Udayakumar, M.Sc., M.Phil., M.Ed., M.A., Ph.D. Candidate, Dr. M. Lekeshmanaswamy, Ph.D. and Dr. K. Dhanalakshmi, Ph.D. 215 in the slum areas be able to do a lot. In this way they will imbibe values of life permanently.

Implications of Value Education
It has been rightly contended that peace is a most desirable objects of the present world and that peace cannot be achieved unless individuals and increasing masses of people contemplate and practice ethical and spiritual values such as those of unity, harmony, mutuality, friendship faithfulness, sincerity and respect for diversity.

Moral and spiritual values are the foundations of the highest peaks of civilizat6ion science, morality and spirituality are intimately intertwined and they should not be viewed as antagonistic to each other. Indeed, the survival of human race at the present critical juncture of human history will depend upon the pursuit of ethical and spiritual values.

Conclusion
Values and education are interdependent and inseparable. Education leads to cultivation of values and the cherished values of the society provide direction to the very educative process. Thus inculcation of values in the curriculum and co-curricular and activities helps the students to imbibe the values from various sources which helps the students to lead an independent, value-based life throughout the life which indirectly helps for bright
future of the nation.

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