Victims of Non- Violent Crimes
ADHD Suggests that criminals may suffer from psychological abnormality or stress. ? Psychodynamic theory ? Behavioral theory ? Cognitive theory ? Personality and crime ? Attachment and crime ? Psychodynamic theory Suggests that criminals may have suffered damage to their ego or superego early in life which renders them powerless to control their impulses. Sigmund Freud Early development problems Personality damage ? ? ? Crime and mental illness Seek immediate gratification of their needs without considering right and wrong or the needs of others.
As adult criminals, those arrested for multiple crimes are more likely to suffer from a psychiatric disorder than nonchronic offenders. ? Individuals who have learned violence and have seen it rewarded are more likely to engage in violence that those who have seen acts of violence punished. ? According to social learning theorists, people act aggressively because, as children, they modeled their behavior after the violent acts of adults. ? One area of interest is the impact of the entertainment media and learned behaviors.
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The disorganized neighborhood ? Crime is believed to be a product of neighborhoods that are characterized by physical deterioration and conflicting social values. ? Major sources of informal social control (family, school, neighborhood, civil service) are broken are ineffective. Social Learning Theories Individuals learn the techniques and attitudes of crime from close relationships with criminal peers. Most widely known of the learning perspectives is Edwin Sutherland’s differential association theory. Control Theories Crime results when the forces that bind an individual to society are weakened or broken.
The most influential advocate of control theory is sociologist Travis Hirschi who suggests that people’s social bonds are formed from a number of different elements. Social Reaction Theory Individuals resort to crime when significant members of society label them as criminal and they accept that label as a personal identity. People who commit undetected antisocial acts are called “secret deviants” or “primary deviants” and their illegal act has little influence or impact on their lifestyle or behavior. Use developmental factors to explain why individuals begin and continue a criminal career.
Criminal Careers ? ? ? ? ? Early onset Truancy Cruelty to animals Lying Theft Root causes of early offending include poor parental discipline and monitoring, inadequate emotional support, distant peer relationships, and psychological problems Suggests that behavior is controlled by a master trait that is present at birth or shortly thereafter, which influences and directs behavior. Suspected latent traits include defective intelligence, impulsive personality, and lack of attachment characteristics that may be present at birth or established early in life and remain stable over time.
Gottfredson and Hirschi = A General Theory of Crime ? Individual differences in the tendency to commit criminal acts can be found in a person’s level of self-control. ? Those with a limited self-control tend to be impulsive, insensitive, physical, risk-taking, shortsighted, and nonverbal. ? Criminal activity diminishes when the opportunity commit crime is limited. Dynamic process influenced by… … Individual characteristics … Traits … Social experiences Specialists Generalists Antisocial behaviors Sampson and Laub Age-graded theory ? The ictim is not a passive target in crime, but someone whose behavior can influence his/her own fate. ? Victim precipitation – Victims may actively or passively ? Lifestyle ? Routine ? The precipitate crime. There are aspects of a person’s lifestyle that may increases their risk of victimization. Crime is explained by the supple of motivated offenders, the presence of suitable targets, and the absence of effective guardians. theory – activities theory – presence of these components increases the likelihood that a predatory crime will take place.