Human-made (other than tourism) •Human-made (for tourism) •Special events WHS Definition: ‘attract visitors to view buildings that were not originally designed for this purpose, and due to the historical significance of the site can rarely be adapted to accommodate visitor flows (Jones et al, 1998). Examples include Temples, churches, A-Ma Temple, St Pauls Ruins, State homes etc. Management techniques are put in place so that they can protect these WHS in the future.
Often Hard management techniques have to be taken to enforce rules. Natural Attraction Definition: Places that were not initially tourist attractions but over time has become one. Examples include national parks, Great Barrier Reef, forests. Usually soft management techniques are used in these locations as it hard to have control over such large areas. Interpretation definition – Interpretation is an educational activity that reveals meaning and relationships through the use of objects, by direct experience, and by instructive media, rather than simply to communicate facts and figures.
Freeman Tilden 1977 “Through interpretation comes understanding, through understanding comes appreciation, and through appreciation comes protection” F. Tilden, 1977 in Eagles & McCool, 2002 Full interpretation is when you told about everything there is to know about a site, some writers argue that this is not always the best way. Some things are better left unknown to the tourists own mind. This can depend on tourist typologies and behaviours. Why is Visitor Satisfaction important?
Visitor management is used to address negative impacts which may be affecting a site. This is done to both observe the site but also to enhance visitor knowledge and satisfaction. It was initially created for natural sites. Other reasons are: ?Enhance visitor experience ?Encourage higher spending ?Induce sympathy for causes ?Encourage visits to be spread over space and time ?Reduce impacts of visitation through management In terms of business it is good to prove the best service you can to increase business, repeat customers, good hear say etc.
This will prolong the life of the tourist attraction and if the correct measures are put in place then will conserve the site too. Visitor Management Definition – an ongoing process to reconcile the potentially competing needs of the visitor, the place and the host community” (Grant, 1990). Hard Management Techniques – This regulates and controls visitor activities to ensure that the site is not coming to any harm. Restrictions are put in place both physical as well as regulatory and economically.
Example of this are: Zoning – This restricts the areas in which visitors can enter by the use of ropes or pollards. Prohibition & legal enforcement – fines and laws which are put in place if rules are broken Restricting Access – So that areas cannot be accessed Off peak and on peak price changes Disadvantages – very restrictive, can be hard to implement, customer satisfaction may be affected negatively Soft Management Techniques – This is another way of trying to enforce rules and regulations on an attraction but in a more subtle way.
Promoting and Marketing is an advertising process in which management will try and get more tourists to the attraction. This could be by special offers discount prices etc. Demarketing – used to unencourage visitors to come during really busy times to prevent overcrowding. High ticket prices etc. Interpretation and education: Another way of ensuring visitor satisfaction is by education, by educating the people maybe that will help them in wanting to preserve the attraction they are at. Disadvantage: Expensive, lack of control and methods can be intrusive to visitors.
Forecasting Definition – Forecasting is fundamentally the process of organising information about a phenomenon’s past in order (Freichtling, 2001) Forecasting is a planning tool which reduces risk, it is especially important in the tourism industry as most products are perishable. Customer satisfaction relies on the good services they receive so therefore it is a must to get right. It can be hard to apply forecasting to the tourism industry as there is not any quantative data to be analysed for the forecasting to be based on.