Vocabulary Yellow Sheets – The Revolutionary Period

French and Indian War
Was a part of a larger war fought by France and England (The Seven Years’ War) on American soil over control of the Ohio River Valley; England, with the help of its colonies, defeated France in 1763; established England as the strongest world power and created some of the attitudes that would ultimately lead to the Revolution War
1763 Treaty of Paris
Treaty that ended the French and Indian War; called for the termination of the French presence in North America; England gained all French land east of the Mississippi River, as well as Florida from the Spanish
Proclamation of 1763
Created a “settlement barrier” at the Appalachian Mountains, barring colonists from settling west of the Mountains; caused many protests and spurred a sense of civil disobedience among those already living on the frontier
Stamp Act
Colonial legislation passed by England to help pay for the debts accrued during the Seven Years’ War/French and Indian War; placed a tax on all official paper documents and mail in the Colonies by requiring a stamp on these documents
Intolerable Acts
Series of colonial laws passed after the Boston Tea Party; closed Boston Harbor until reparations for the tea had been made, restricted public assembly, allowed colonial British officials to be tried (favorably) overseas, and allowed for the quartering of English soldiers
Sons of Liberty
Boston-based radical political association which fought back against the “injustices” of England after the passage of the Stamp Act; members of this organization would later help form the Committees of Correspondence
Daughters of Liberty
Slightly less radical political group which advocated nonviolent economic protest against England, such as boycotting British goods and hand-making textiles, rather than the militant tactics of the Sons of Liberty
Committees of Correspondence
Organized by patriot leader Samuel Adams, founder of the Sons of Liberty; System of communication between patriots throughout the colonies; United the colonies in opposition to Parliament; sent delegates to the First Continental Congress
Declaration of Independence
Originally drafted by Thomas Jefferson; formal document created in 1776 at the Second Continental Congress declaring American Independence from England; listed the grievances of the colonies towards King George III and Parliament
John Locke
English Enlightenment thinker whose political theory played a central role in the creation of the Declaration of Independence and American democracy (the Social Contract theory)
George Washington
Virginian military general who fought in the French and Indian War and later led the Continental Army during the Revolutionary War; served as the president of the Constitutional Convention and the first president of the United States (term:1789-1797)
Crossing the Delaware River
During the night of December 25, 1776, Washington crossed the Delaware River to lead a surprise attack against the Hessian mercenary forces in New Jersey; very successful
Valley Forge
The place in Pennsylvania where George Washington and his troops endured the harsh winter of 1776-1777 without proper food, shelter, or clothing
Benjamin Franklin
American Founding Father; printer in Philadelphia; Pennsylvania delegate to the Constitutional Convention; served as the American ambassador to France after the American Revolution
Marquis de Lafayette
Wealthy French aristocrat who believed in the American cause for liberty, contributing funds towards the American war effort and becoming one of Washington’s leading generals
General Charles Cornwallis
General of the British forces during the Revolutionary War; surrendered to Washington after being surrounded by the Continental Army and the French at Yorktown
Battle of Yorktown
Last battle of the Revolutionary War; ended with the surrounding of General Cornwallis near the Chesapeake Bay by the Continental Army on land and the French Navy at sea
1783 Treaty of Paris
Formal agreement between England and the United States, acknowledging its independence and granting it all lands east of the Mississippi River
How did the British “lose the peace” in winning the French and Indian War?
The saying goes “The British may have won the war, but they lost the peace” because the French and Indian War/Seven Years’ War cost England a great deal of money; England turned towards its colonies to foot the bill through increased taxes (Stamp Act, Tea Act, Townshend Acts, etc.); the Colonies did not want to pay for this war and the resulting protest led to the Revolutionary War
How can a people who speak the same language not understand one another?
This is a creative way of noting how similar the colonists and British were in heritage but different in political ideals; the imperial British empire believed it only natural to derive economic profit from its colonies and to levy taxes on colonists to help pay for expenses in the mother country; however, the colonists believed this practice was unjust since they had come to the New World to escape oppressive tax regimes such as this and to improve their socioeconomic standing; thus, when England denied to address its subjects’ concerns, it was only a matter of time till they started a revolution, spurred by Locke’s Social Contract Theory
Using the American Revolution as an example, does Newton’s Third Law of Motion apply in history?
From the American standpoint, yes it does, because England repeatedly failed to address its subjects’ concerns and suffered the consequences; from the British standpoint, this isn’t as good of an example as other events because they saw the colonists like whining, belligerent children when they refused to help pay taxes to promote the general welfare of the British Empire
What are the key ideas of American Democracy?
Consent of the governed, liberty, equality, separation of powers, representative government
Why was “Common Sense” a driving force for independence?
Because it was one of the first written, easily-attained pamphlets calling for complete independence from England
How did the Age of Enlightenment play a role in independence?
Many of the democratic political ideals of the American Revolution, the Declaration of Independence, and the Constitution were borrowed from Enlightenment philosophers
How was the United States, a nation weaker than its adversary, able to defeat Great Britain?
Because they had a cause worth fighting for, their independence and families and way of life; they also had a greater familiarity with the lands on which the battles occurred
How was the life of the American soldier in the 1700’s different from a soldier’s life today?
Volunteer army (no payment); always had to be ready to deploy (the “minutemen”); weren’t given anything beyond basic provisions
How did George Washington earn the title, “Father of his nation”?
He played a central role in the fight for independence and the formation of the United States; he served as commander-in-chief of the Continental Army, president of the Constitutional Convention, and the nation’s first head executive (President)
How did personality play a role in America’s successful diplomacy during the Revolution?
The American diplomat to France at the time, Benjamin Franklin, was mature, brilliant, able, and worldly; he used his diplomatic skills to convince people such as Baron von Steuben and Marquis de Lafayette to aid in the War and to convince French officials to contribute financially towards the American war effort
Why would aristocrats, such as Marquis de Lafayette, want to fight in the Revolution?
On the one side, there’s the possibility of favorable sitting with the new nation and economic benefit down the road; on the other, aristocrats of the time had plenty of money and thus had the time to pursue lofty goals, such as achieving an idealistic revolution, which could have played a factor in Lafayette’s earnestness
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