Was Colonialism Good For Uganda Essay Research
Was Colonialism Good For Uganda? Essay, Research Paper
IntroductionThe yesteryear is another state, where it is merely possible to travel as a tourer, and which we will ne’er to the full understand. We can depict what we see, but it is far more hard to cognize why people acted in the manner they did, or what they believed, and why they believed it.
Uganda excessively is another state, which did non even exist before the white adult male went at that place. Even the name reflects the thoughts of the first adventurers, whose gateway into the new district was via the Buganda folk, whom they were subsequently to utilize as their colonial agents as British regulation was extended.
Those who? discovered? Ugandan and the beginning of the Nile which the first adventurers were seeking & # 8211 ; work forces such as Speke and Stanley & # 8211 ; and the soldiers and decision makers who came after them doubtless believed in the high quality of European civilization in a manner which we today would see intolerably racialist. Although they were impressed by the edification of Bugandan society, they implicitly assumed that Africa was more backward than Europe, that Africans would profit from exposure to Western criterions and practises, and of class from Christianity. To a grade this allowed them either to warrant or even to stamp down what now looks to be the petroleum world that their implicit in docket was the extension of British influence, the publicity of British commercialism, and the enlargement of the British Empire, all without mention to the existent wants of the Ugandan people. But so, even in Britain at thattime, democracy was a new thought and many people, including adult females, still did non hold the ballot.
Having said that, many Ugandans would today accept that their state had at some phase to be brought into contact with the modern universe, and even that they were relatively lucky in being colonised by the British instead than by, for case, the Belgians whose barbarous regulation in the Congo was far crueller than that of the British Protectorate in Uganda. Furthermore, the fact that the reaching of the British in Uganda was non accompanied by the larceny of African land for white husbandmans & # 8211 ; as it was in Zimbabwe or Kenya & # 8211 ; meant that some of the resentment and bitterness felt about European regulation in some African states was non a characteristic in Uganda. So race dealingss, even today, are more relaxed in Uganda than in many parts of the Continent.
In this undertaking I have tried to explicate the history of the reaching of white work forces in Uganda, and how this procedure left some of import mistake lines in Ugandan society which were to stalk the freshly independent phase one time the British had left.
Can the Victorian adventurers who foremost came to Mutesa? s collapsible shelter be blamed for what was to go on a hundred old ages? subsequently? Even if they could, what would be the point of making so? It seems to me that the best we can trust to make is to seek and understand how and why things happened, in order to seek harder to believe about what might be the cultural premises with which we see the universe, and which the hereafter will certainly happen to be likewise unusual and foreign.
For one twenty-four hours we shall be the past, the dwellers of another state for those who will look back and inquire why we acted in the manner we did, what we believed, and why we believed it.
The beginning of foreign intrusion-
Kabaka Mutesa- King of the Baganda
By 1800, the tribal groups in the state we now call Uganda were reasonably cut off from the outside world.. But in the mid-19th Century the first Swahili-speaking slave bargainers arrived on the East Coast of Uganda. Their leader was a adult male called Ahmed Bin Ibrahim. He shortly made contact with the dominant regional power, Buganda. Buganda at that phase was ruled by a adult male called Kabaka ( i.e. King ) Mutesa, who allowed Ibrahim to run from Kampala, the capital. Mutesa even collaborated with the bargainers in slave-raiding parties in the neighbouring parts. But shortly Ibrahim, although claiming he had simply come for concern intents, tried to enforce the thought of encompassing Islam upon Kabaka Mutesa, and more Arabians arrived in Buganda.
After 1850 Europeans started to dribble into Buganda and the part. The first was John Hanning Speke who came in 1862 in hunt of the beginning of the Nile.
It is of import non to be excessively romantic about life in the Kingdom of Buganda when white work forces arrived. When Speke showed Mutesa how guns worked by hiting four cattles, Mutese gave a rifle to a page and asked him to prove it by hiting a adult male in the outer tribunal, which the page quickly did. From Speke? s history, cipher around Mutesa even bothered to inquire who had been killed.The find of the beginning of the Nile prompted involvement in the country from Egypt, which feared that the beginning could fall into hostile custodies given the importance of the Nile for the economic life of Egypt. But efforts by the swayer of Egypt, Khedive Ismail, to integrate the beginning of the Nile into the Equatoria Province of the Egyptian Empire were thwarted by Mutesa and the Bunyoro King Kabelaga, who defeated ground forcess and Egyptian agents such as Samuel Banker. The Buganda and the Bunyoro had long been challengers for domination, but found themselves as spouses in the attempt to defy colonialism.The concluding blow to the Egyptian strategy was finally to be delivered by the Mahdist rebellion in the Sudan ( included in the Egyptian imperium since the 1820s ) , which efficaciously blocked Egyptian progresss into Uganda.
But by this phase Islam had started to take root. Indeed, Kabaka Mutesa had half-heartedly welcomed this religion although he had resisted existent transition. There ensued struggle between the Muslims and Mutesa in 1867, taking to the combustion of many Arabs. These were the first of many Ugandan sufferer.
When Henry Morton Stanley a Welsh ( but feigning to be American ) adventurer reached Buganda in 1875, Mutesa asked him to set up for Christian missionaries to come to Buganda. It is extremely improbable that Mutesa knew precisely what he was making. His chief purpose was likely that the Christians would convey guns with them which he could utilize to guard off the Egyptians.Stanley wrote a missive to Britain appealing for Christian missionaries to be sent to Buganda. This received an immediate response, with generous fiscal contributions pouring into the caissons of the Anglican missionaries of the Church Missionary Society who arrived in Uganda in 1877 as the first group of Christian missionaries. Two old ages subsequently they were followed by the Catholic White Fathers lead by Father Lourdel who was called by the Bagandans? mapera? . But the separate Protestant and Catholic missional attempts unhappily set the phase for some of the spiritual struggles to come. Mutesa and his courtiers were bewildered by the two sets of white work forces each claiming to stand for a trade name of Christianity more valid than the other.
When Kabaka Mutesa died in 1884, his boy Mwanga was a volatile head-strong adolescent who took the throne merely as the complex spiritual competitions in Buganda were constructing to a flood tide. Thingss were acquiring out of control. The Muslims, Catholics and Protestants had turned themselves into inchoate political parties and were viing for political influences around the royal household and the tribunal Lords.
The Muslims took advantage of their longer stay in the state and argued to Mwanga that the existent purposes of the Christians were non spiritual but to colonize Buganda and take the land. Mwanga hence decided to halt any Christians entering Buganda. When he heard that Bishop Hannington was about to get in Buganda, Mwanga ordered that Hannigton be killed before he reached Buganda. He besides tried to forestall the Baganda people from go toing the missionaries? categories, but many of them resisted his attempts. In February 1886 he had a few of them burned to decease at Namugongo, followed by a mass combustion of Christian converts in June that twelvemonth, many of them roasted on a tongue. This move misfired severely, since alternatively of turning off from Christianity the Baganda sought to be baptised in turning Numberss. Mwanga was progressively disturbed by the spiritual activities in Buganda and planned to trail away from his land all foreign spiritual groups. But he failed, and in fact his secret plan to trail themaway provoked unfastened rebellion against him by the two Christian groups and the Muslims. In 1888 Mwanga was overthrown.
But every bit shortly as Mwanga had left the scene, the Christian-Muslim confederation broke up The Moslems staged their putsch by put ining a Muslim- Kalema & # 8211 ; as the Kabaka. Hostilities ensued between the Muslims and the Christians, with the Christians coercing the Muslims to fly from Kampala, the capital of Buganda. The Christians groups so rallied behind their former tormentor Mwanga and eventually managed to subvert the Muslim government in 1889. Mwanga was reinstated but existent power had really passed to the Christian leaders who had a immense influence over the people.
The British take over.The above events were go oning against the background of an increasing scuffle for Africa by the major European powers. The Congress of Berlin had decided in 1885 that the whole of Eastern Africa was to be a German and British domain of influence.
Trading companies were hence formed to claim countries of East Africa on behalf of their several states. The Germans moved fast and made several pacts around Mount Kilimanjaro and within countries on the Tanzanian seashore. The British besides plunged into the race but fearing that the Germans might acquire in front of them they pressed for an Anglo- German understanding which was signed in 1886. This understanding practically gave Kenya to Britain and Tanganyika to Germany. Neither the British nor the Germans asked the local people for their positions.
The 1886 understanding left the inquiry of who was to take over Uganda unsettled, and, struggle shortly arose with the German agent, Carl Peters reasoning a pact of protection with Mwanga. Peters achieved this with the support of the Gallic Catholic missionaries who hadhelped to set Mwanga back on the throne. The British worried that the German authorities might do Peters? associated state functionary, and so engaged in some frenetic diplomatic negotiations taking to an Anglo-German understanding in 1890. Under this understanding, the British gave the Germans & # 8211 ; at that phase dreaming of constructing up their naval power & # 8211 ; an island called Heligoland in the North South ( merely approximately three stat mis about, a waste stone covered with seagull dungs ) , in exchange for the Germans giving up any claim to Uganda, or Zanzibar or Equatoria ( about 100.000 square stat mis of Africa in all ) , which would go British associated states.
Captain Lugard of the Imperial British East African Company ( IBEA Co ) was the polar figure in the constitution of existent British regulation. He arrived in 1890 and started to work out a manner of colonizing the whole of Uganda. Immediately, when he arrived he concluded a pact of protection with Mwanga.
The Bunyoro remained a important obstruction. From 1869 Kabalega, the swayer of Bunyoro, had re-organised his forces and embarked on the reconquest of lost districts that had one time belonged to him. By 1890 Kabalega ha already chased away Kasagama of the Kingdom of Toro, who fled to Buganda.
Lugard moved on to Toro to reconstruct Kasagama, and so he turned his attending to Ankole. He returned to Buganda in 1892 merely to happen that the Protestants and Catholics & # 8211 ; with the Muslims now defeated -had fallen out. Lugard intervened on the side of the Protestants giving them the guns to guarantee their triumph.Thereafter Buganda was carved up along spiritual lines. The Catholics were given Buddu, the Muslims retired to Butambala and Gomba and the Protestants took the counties near to and environing the town of Kampala. Unfortunately, these spiritual divisions were to be replicated elsewhere in Uganda as British influence spread.
By 1982, the IBEA Co. was already in fiscal troubles. The company threatened to draw out of Buganda unless the British authorities built a railroad to associate from Uganda to the seashore. The argument in Britain was whether to retain Uganda or non. In 1892, Sir Gerald Portalwas sent to Uganda to measure the state? s potency, to see if Uganda was deserving colonising. The cardinal point was that African states like Uganda were chiefly seen in footings of their economic potency for the imperial power. There was so some relucatance in Britain to busy Uganda because at first there did non look to be an obvious stuff
advantage in making so. But the other statement used by those desiring to command Uganda was that the presence of the beginning of the Nile in that state gave it strategic importance both in relation to Egypt and the Suez Canal through which ships sailed to the gem in the imperial Crown, India. Furthermore, there was concern that if Britain did non occupy Uganda, person else would – most likely France – therefore seting wider British involvements at hazard.
Portal really arrived in Buganda in 1893 and made a favorable study and in 1894 Uganda was officially declared a British Protectorate.
But still the state of affairs in Uganda was non unagitated, Colonel Colville, who was sent out as the Acting Commissioner to Uganda in 1894, had many jobs to decide. His first undertaking was to incorporate the Bunyoro swayer Kabalega who had chased off Kasagama from the Toro throne for a 2nd clip. In 1896 a combined force of Sudanese, Baganda and British soldiers defeated Kabalega and chased him from his capital at Mparo. In order to satisfy the Baganda portion of the Bunyoro land was given to Buganda. These alleged? lost counties? were to stay a heatedly disputed political issue into the early yearss of Uganda? s independency.
But in 1897 problem broke out once more when the Bugandan Kabaka Mwanga, unhappy with his new low-level place, rose against the British and joined Kabalega in the swamps of Langa. On top of that, some Sudanese soldiers who had been engaged by Captain Lugard revolted against being overworked and underpaid..
The British called in Indian regiments stationed in Mombassa and defeated the Sudanese soldiers. They so proceeded to capture Kabalega and Mwanga, and sent them into expatriate, foremost to Kismayu so to the Seychelles Islands where Mwanga died. Kabalega waseventually allowed to return in 1923 but he died in Busoga on his manner place to Bunyoro.
The problems with Kabalega, Mwanga and the Sudanese soldiers meant that the British had to pass more money than they expected seting down the assorted rebellions. As the British tax-payers were bitterly kicking, the British Government sent Sir Harry Johnstone as a Particular Commissioner to Uganda to look into the state of affairs, to invent ways through which Uganda could pay for disposal, and to seek a lasting confederation with Baganda thereby doing them lend to the colonization of the remainder of Uganda. Sir Harry Johnstone arrived tardily in 1899. His treatments and dialogues with the Christian leaders and the Baganda heads in 1900 led to signature of the Buganda Agreement in that twelvemonth.
The Buganda Agreement of 1900Although this Agreement was to be the basis of the British presence in Uganda, it merely concerned the British and the Buganda.
The Agreement fixed the boundaries of Buganda for the first clip, including the two? lost counties? taken from the Bunyoro in 1896.
The Kabaka was allowed to go on governing Buganda, but his determinations were to be capable to blessing by the British Commissioner occupant inUganda. The Bugandan Parliament & # 8211 ; the Lukiiko & # 8211 ; was confirmed as Buganda? s legislative organic structure and its rank was fixed at 89.
All land in Buganda had antecedently belonged to the Kabaka. But now it was split into crown land on? mailo? land. The Kabaka and his heads, peculiarly the Protestant 1s who had helped the British, benefitted from this understanding and many became successful landlords, bear downing high rents for their renters.
On the fiscal forepart, the Agreement besides introduced hut-tax and gun-tax, so as to finance the running of the protectorate disposal without burthening the British tax-payers. From the British point of position, the debut of these revenue enhancements had the added advantage of forcing local husbandmans into cultivation of cash-crops such as java and cotton in order to pay their revenue enhancements.
The constitution of British ruleHaving put down roots in Buganda, the British moved rapidly and established their regulation over Toro, Bunyoro, Ankole and Kigezi. The undertaking of? lenifying? the E was efficaciously done for them by Semei Kakungulu, a Muganda general who had joined in the wars against Bunyoro and had played a large function in the concluding gaining control of Kabalega and Mwenga.
Having got clasp of the cardinal part, the West and the E, the British moved easy towards the North. Very easy & # 8211 ; in 1906 so they decided non to integrate districts north of the Nile into Uganda partially on the evidences of the cost and attempt which would be required to repress the northern folk. But this policy was reversed in 1911, and by 1919 the British had eventually completed the conquering of contemporary Uganda.
The British had few work forces at their disposal to govern Uganda. They hence preferred to utilize a system called? indirect regulation? . This meant that they ruled through the traditional heads of some folks, chiefly the Buganda whom they frequently posted in other parts of Uganda in a sub-imperialistic function. The Bugandan system of authorities was hence transplanted to other parts of Uganda, even those without such a tradition of kingly regulation, while Buganda itself was run as a privileged province within a province. This caused considerable bitterness against the Buganda agents. Indeed, in 1907 the Bunyoro rose in rebellion against the Buganda agents. Over clip, the British realised that this system was non sustainable, and after 1920 they replaced the agents with local people. But the memory of this period was to digest, peculiarly in Bunyoro where there was besides go oning ill-feeling over the? lost? counties.Uganda was by and large calm between 1920 and 1938, although Africans were excluded from existent political power. In 1921, the colonial authorities set up a Legislative Council. But this merely represented British and Asiatic involvements. The chief cause of discord with the Buganda was over land, with the landlords who had benefited from the 1900 Agreement demanding heavy rents, but these concerns were in the chief met with the transition of statute law in 1927 to command the rents on such? mailo? land. The British besides relied on a turning figure of Asians as middle-men to run the economic system. For case, in the cotton industry, merely Europeans and Asians had the right to have cotton jineries & # 8211 ; Africans were forced to stay as simply the agriculturists of the natural green goods.
But for all its defects, the administrative system which was imposed upon Uganda gave autochthonal Ugandans far greater liberty than was found elsewhere in British-ruled Africa.
From the African point of position, the good intelligence was that the protectorate authorities discouraged white husbandmans from settling in Uganda as they had in Zimbabwe and Kenya. However restricted the function of Ugandans in the economic system, many parts however attained a high grade of economic autonomy, the Local Government Ordinance of 1949 which divided Ugandan into 18 territories gave considerable powers to local African decision makers.
The churches remained largely responsible for instruction, with the consequence that kids tended to turn up within a Protestant or a Catholic environment, a division which was later to be reflected in the formation of Ugandan political parties. The Muslims were really much a 3rd, and underprivileged, category.
The country which suffered most from British policy was the North, which was neglected in footings of instruction and ne’er provided with the conveyance links which would hold enabled husbandmans to export their merchandises to other parts of the state. So the people of the North were forced to direct their kids south in hunt of work, and they became a beginning of recuits for the ground forces and the constabulary force.The build-up to independenceThe demand for independency after World War II was slow to construct up in Uganda compared to other African settlements. This was likely due to a figure of factors, including the deficiency of widespread European colony to move as a trigger for bitterness, and besides to the fact that the position quo instead suited Buganda? s Protestant elite. Uganda? s foremost anti-colonial party, the Uganda National Congress ( UNC ) was non founded until 1952.
The first serious call for independency came from an improbable beginning & # 8211 ; the unpopular Kabaka Mutesa II who in 1953 defied the British by smartly opposing the proposed federation of Uganda with Kenya and Tanzania. Behind this was Bugandan concern that federation would intend the loss of their particular position and laterality by Kenya. When the Governor of Uganda refused to give Mutesa any particular warrants sing a particular position for Buganda in such a federation, Mutesa demanded independency for Buganda entirely. The Governor so exiled Mutasa to Britain. This made the Kabaka a really popular figure, for standing up to the British, and in 1955 he was allowed to return and to subscribe a new Buganda Agreement giving him and his authorities even greater federal powers. Sadly, Mutesa did non utilize his popularity to assist unite Uganda, but continued to concentrate merely on inquiries such as Buganda? s position which merely reinforced the mistake lines in Ugandan political relations.
The state? s first of import political party, the Democratic Party ( DP ) , was founded in 1956 by a Catholic Bugandan called Matayo Mugwanya. Mutesa had rejected him as a campaigner for the Prime Ministership of Buganda because he was a Catholic, and the DP became a platform for the grudges of Catholics who felt themselves to be second-class citizens.The formation of the Uganda People? s Union ( UPU ) came in 1958 when for the first clip a quota of Africans was elected to national flat authorities. It was an confederation of non-Baganda leaders, and it merged in 1959 with the non-Baganda component of the older UNC led by Milton Obote, who came from the North of Uganda, top signifier the preponderantly Protestant Uganda People? s Congree ( UPC ) . The Baganda component of the UNC combined with members of the federal authorities of Buganda to organize the pro-Protestant and pro-Buganda Kabaka Yekka ( intending? Kabaka everlastingly? , KY ) .
IndependenceThe phase was set for the calamity which was to follow Ugandan independency. The DP won the pre-Independence 1961 elections ( mostly because of a boycott by the Baganda ) and their leader Benedicto Kiwanuka became Prime Minister when Uganda was granted self-determination in March 1962. But an confederation between the UPC and the KY, based on their anti-Catholicism, gave them triumph in the elections which came shortly afterwards, and it was Milton Obote who lead Uganda to independence in October 1962 as Prime Minister, with the Kabaka as caput of state..
Uganda at independency was hence disconnected along spiritual and cultural lines, with Buganda holding full federal position while the other lands merely had semi-federal position, and the remainder of the state & # 8211 ; including the north & # 8211 ; was linked straight to cardinal authorities. Moreoever, Obote? s bulk in Parliament was based on an confederation with the Baganda which was based entirely on spiritual evidences. All in all, the state of affairs was unquestionably frail.
The issue which tested the new province was the old one of the? lost counties? of Bunyoro. In 1964, Obote decided to settled the inquiry by keeping a referendum in the counties, to inquire the people whether they wanted to be portion of Bunyoro or Buganda. Inevitably, about 80 % voted in favor of Bunyoro, doing a serious difference between Obote and the Kabaka and the terminal of the delicate confederation between the UPC and the KY.
Obote remained Prime Minister because adequate DP and KY politicans had defected to his party for him to retain a Parliamentary bulk. But go oning tensenesss between Obote and the Kabaka caused a Constitutional crisis in 1966 when Obote overthrew the Constitution, and stripped the Kabaka of his function as caput of province. When the Kabaka appealed to the United Nations to step in, Obote sent his ground forces & # 8211 ; led by an officer called Idi Amin & # 8211 ; to assail the royal castle. The Kabaka fled, but several of his protagonists were massacred.
Obote so pushed through a new Constitution, doing himself Life President and get rid ofing the Kingdoms, and giving the ground forces limitless powers to confine people without test. Faced with go oning Bugandan bitterness, Obote had to trust more and more on force to remain in power. He appointed Amin his Army Commander. In 1969 Obote banned the DP and other political parties. He was deposed by Amin in 1971, while in Singapore for a Commonwealth Conference. The chief ground seems to hold been that Obote was impeaching Amin of stealing $ 4million from the military budget.