Water Conservation

5 May 2017

Water is essential for life on earth. Water is needed for growing food, keeping ourselves clean, generating power, controlling fire and most importantly to stay alive! This list is simply non-ending. This shows that water is an integral part of our daily life and we are heavily dependent on it. Water conservation – Refers to reducing the usage of water and recycling of waste water for different purposes such as cleaning, manufacturing, and agricultural irrigation.

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Water conservation can be defined as: 1 . A reduction in water use accomplished by implementation of water conservation or water efficiency measures; or, 2. Improved water management practices that reduce or enhance the beneficial use of water. A water conservation measure is an action, behavioral change, device, technology, or improved design or process implemented to reduce water loss, waste, or use. Water efficiency is a tool of water conservation. That results in more efficient water use and thus reduces water demand.

The value and cost-effectiveness of a water efficiency measure must be evaluated in relation to its effects on the use and cost of other natural resources (e. . energy or chemicals). Water efficiency- Water efficiency can be defined as the accomplishment of a function, task, process, or result with the minimal amount of water feasible, or an indicator of the relationships between the amount of water needed for a specific purpose and the amount of water used, occupied or delivered. Social Solutions- Water conservation programs are typically initiated at the local level, by either municipal water utilities or regional governments.

Common strategies include public outreach campaigns, tiered water rates (charging progressively higher prices s water use increases), or restrictions on outdoor water use such as lawn watering and car washing. Cities in dry climates often require or encourage the installation of xeriscaping or natural landscaping in new homes to reduce outdoor water usage. One fundamental conservation goal is universal metering. The prevalence of residential water metering varies significantly worldwide. Recent studies have about 60% of urban homes (as of 2009).

Although individual water meters have often been considered impractical in homes with private wells or in multifamily buildings, the Environmental Protection Agency estimates that metering alone can reduce onsumption by 20 to 40 percent. In addition to raising consumer awareness of their water use, metering is also an important way to identify and localize water leaks. Some researchers have suggested that water conservation efforts should be primarily directed at farmers, in light of the fact that crop irrigation accounts for 70% of the world’s fresh water use.

The agricultural sector of most countries is important both economically and politically, and water subsidies are common. Conservation advocates have urged removal of all subsidies to force farmers to grow more water- fficient crops and adopt less wasteful irrigation techniques Goals- The goals of water conservation efforts include as follows: Sustainability. To ensure availability for future generations, the withdrawal of fresh water from an ecosystem should not exceed its natural replacement rate. Energy conservation.

Water pumping, delivery, and wastewater treatment facilities consume a significant amount of energy. In some regions of the world (for example, California over 15% of total electricity consumption is devoted to water Habitat conservation. Minimizing human water use helps to management. reserve fresh water habitats for local wildlife and migrating waterfowl, as well as reducing the need to build new dams and other water diversion infrastructure. WHY CONSERVE? Water conservation is the most cost-effective and environmentally sound way to reduce our demand for water.

This stretches our supplies farther, and protects natural Lakes. For example, the city of Visakhapatnam has grown by 1 million people since the 1990s, but still uses the same amount of water. Using less water also puts less pressure on our sewage treatment facilities, and uses less energy for water supply to the grid. Why should you conserve water? There are many good reasons to conserve water. Water conservation can help meet future needs. Saving water will save you money. Water conservation helps preserve the environment. Ђ Saving water will save energy. Although water conservation helps, some people have misconceptions about what water conservation can and can’t do. If we all work together to conserve water, we can help assure a bright and prosperous life for future generations. Become an advocate of conservation in your community. Help promote conservation as a wise and important water management principle. Conserving water saves you money! Not only will your water bill go down, but as you use less water, your gas or energy bill will also decline.

If your whole community conserves, you will also pay less fees for water-related services. Water conserving communities will not need to pay as much to develop new supplies and expand or upgrade water and wastewater infrastructure. Wise usage of water helps us in saving money. We have to pay for the water we use. If we use less water, we will have more money left to spend on other things. Preserve the Environment- Water is the life-blood of the environment. From lush mountain meadows to harsh desert valleys, water holds everything together, making the land inhabitable by people and wildlife.

As the population grows, the strains placed upon the environment and its critical ecosystems will increase. Conserving water will help preserve the environment by minimizing necessary diversions and decreasing pollution. When we use water wisely, we help protect the environment. We save water for animals and plants. We also help in preserving drinking water supplies. This ultimately results into easing the burden on wastewater treatment plants. The less water we waste, the less work these plants have to do to make water clean again. SAVING ENERGY- Using water wisely, results into saving energy in multiple ways.

We save the energy that is required in treating and supplying water to our place and also the energy we consume in heating the water. Conservation of water can be broadly divided into 3 important sectors. 1 . Household water conservation. 2. Agricultural water conservation. 3. Industrial water conservation. [pic] The above diagram shows the approximate water usage for domestic and Industrial uses. 1. HOUSEHOLD: Water-saving technology for the home includes: Low-flow shower heads (sometimes called energy-efficient shower heads as they also use less energy, due to less water being heated). Ђ Low-flush toilets and composting toilets. These have a dramatic impact in the developed world, as conventional Western toilets use large volumes of water. Dual flush toilets include two buttons or handles to flush different levels of water. Dual flush toilets use up to 67% less water than conventional toilets. Saline water (sea water) or rain water can be used for flushing toilets. Faucet aerators, which break water low into fine droplets to maintain “wetting effectiveness” while using less water.

An additional benefit is that they reduce splashing while washing hands and dishes. Wastewater reuse or recycling systems, allowing: Reuse of graywater for flushing toilets or watering gardens, and Recycling of wastewater through purification at a water treatment plant. Rainwater harvesting High-efficiency clothes washers Weather-based irrigation controllers Garden hose nozzles that shut off water when it is not being used, instead of eliminates water waste at the faucet. It automates the use of faucets without the sing of hands.

Water can also be conserved by landscaping with native plants and by changing behavior, such as shortening showers and not running the faucet while brushing teeth. Faucets: o Repairing a dripping faucet can save up to 100 liters per day. o If your existing faucet flows above 10 liters per minute, install a low-flow faucet or aerator. For a bathroom faucet, a 6-liter-per-minute flow will provide sufficient water for personal hygiene needs. For a kitchen faucet, you may want a 10-liters-per-minute flow to make sure the flow of water is sufficient to wash and rinse dishes.

Water losses caused by dripping faucets can range from several liters to hundreds of liters of water per day. Toilets: o Detect toilet leaks by adding leak detector tablets or a few drops of food coloring to the toilet tank. If the tank is leaking, color will appear in the bowl within 10-15 minutes. Flush immediately after testing. o Fix the toilet leak and you can save as much as 400 liters of water per day. o Toilet water use can be cut by 30 percent with a toilet tank dam or displacement bag. o Place a dye tablet inside the toilet tank; if the tank is leaking, color will appear in the bowl within 10 to 15 inutes.

Flush immediately after testing. o Since the mid-1990s, all new toilets have been redesigned to conserve water, using 8 literss of water per flush. Older models use 20 liters or more per flush. Appliances: o When you replace clothes washers, consider a water-efficient model that uses an average of 100 liters of water per load. Front loaders use 80-100 liters. Showers and Tubs: o Check your showerhead. If it is leaking or the flow rate is more than ten liters per minute, you should replace it with a low-flow version (61iters per minute maximum). This can save up to 37 liters per day.

Shower water use can be cut by 50 percent with a low-flow showerhead. Leaks: o Fixing leaks and installing a few inexpensive water-saving devices in your home could save you an estimated 100,000 liters of water each year. o Leaks inside your toilet can waste up to 400 liters of water a day. o Repairing a dripping faucet can save up to 100 liters per day.. o Dripping showerheads can waste 75 to several hundred gallons of water a week, depending on the size of the drip. Miscellaneous Savings Statements: o Save up to 4,000 liters per month: Turn off the water while brushing your eeth and shaving. Save up to 10000 liters per month: Rinse fruit and veggies in a bowl of water instead of under running water. o Save up t05000 liters per month: Replace older toilets with new low-flow models. o Save up to 4,000 liters per month: Run your washing machine and dishwasher only when full. Rainwater Harvesting 2. AGRICULTURAL: Drip Irrigation For crop irrigation, optimal water efficiency means minimizing losses due to evaporation, runoff or subsurface drainage. An evaporation pan can be used to determine how much water is required to irrigate the land.

Flood irrigation, the ldest and most common type, is often very uneven in distribution, as parts of a field may receive excess water in order to deliver sufficient quantities to other parts. Overhead irrigation, using center-pivot or lateral-moving sprinklers, gives a much more equal and controlled distribution pattern. Drip irrigation is the most expensive and least-used type, but offers the best results in delivering water to plant roots with minimal losses. As changing irrigation systems can be a costly undertaking, conservation efforts often concentrate on maximizing the efficiency of the existing system.

This may include chiseling compacted soils, creating furrow dikes to prevent runoff, and using soil moisture and rainfall sensors to optimize irrigation schedules. Infiltration basins, also called recharge pits, capture rainwater and recharge ground water supplies. Use of these management practices reduces soil erosion caused by storm water runoff and improves water quality in nearby surface waters. 3. INDUSTRIAL: Industry is the single largest consumer of water. While there is increasing focus on ways to conserve water at home, most people do not give much thought to conserving water at work.

However, there are as many ways for industry to conserve water as there are at home. Combined effort by both industry workers and homeowners can make a huge reduction in the amount of water that is wasted, as well as the energy used to clean and purify it. Recycling and Reuse Industries have many opportunities to reuse water within their own plants to minimize their draw on municipal drinking water sources. Water used for one purpose can often be saved and reused for another, especially after filtering. For example, a plant can run gray water from sinks and cleaning through a filter for use s cooling water for machinery.

As long as the reused water is clean enough or has been cleaned enough for use in its new role, recycling water this way saves a significant amount of drinking water from being used for Jobs that do not require potable (drinkable) water. Many car washes already do this on a smaller scale. [pic] A typical recycling plant Switching from water-cooled systems to air-cooled systems would have a tremendous effect on total water consumption, as using water to cool hot equipment is one of the largest drains on municipal water systems.

Water that has been cleaned and filtered t great expense to a community is not being drunk when it’s used as a coolant. Instead, it is going into the atmosphere as steam water vapor. Air-cooled technology is an efficient and practical alternative in fact, air-cooled radiators in cars replaced water-cooled radiators about 50 years ago. While there are condensation systems that help to reclaim some of that lost water, no system is completely effective. For example, when a company switched cooling systems from water to air, they saw more than a 90 percent reduction in their per-minute use of water.

Rinsing Systems Another source of huge potential water savings is the rinsing systems used by industries to remove contaminants from equipment and products. Changes in how the rinses are done, such as not overflowing tanks to float contaminants over the sides, combined with using intermittent-flow systems instead of continuous-flow systems, would result in a significantly reduced water usage for these procedures. Additional Conservation Tips Many of the same conservation tips for the home apply equally for industry.

Irrigating lawns and fields in the morning and only watering when necessary, along ith using ultra low-flow toilets, installing sink aerators and repairing leaks promptly can cut the amount of water used by industry significantly. Using brushes and a mop and pail for cleaning instead of a hose and reducing the frequency of building and vehicle washing can save hundreds of gallons per day. CONCLUSION- Water is a natural resource which is limited and available on finite quantity on earth in different form. Hence we should use the existing supplies wisely.

It is constantly being cleaned and recycled through the earth’s water cycle. The need to conserve ater is important because people use up our planet’s fresh water faster than it can naturally be replenished. We should be careful and economic in the use of water for domestic and industrial purposes so that no water is wasted. Much water can be stored by saving bathroom water in tanks to be used for flushing toilets, washing cars, watering lawns, etc. Wastage of water in irrigation can be minimized by checking leakage in irrigation channels, brick-lining the irrigation channels, and by avoiding over watering.

Use of subsurface and sprinkler techniques for watering the fields can also save water. revents its loss in floods, and release water throughout the year. We are all water creatures, 60% of our body is made up of water, 70% of our brain is water and 80% of our blood is water. While we can go without food for almost one month, we cannot survive without water for more than 7 days. Water is not made anymore; the quantity of water that is available on earth is the same that was available millions of years ago.

Most of our planet is covered with water, but only 3% of it is fresh water and most of it is in the form of ice. So, only 1% of water is potable and usable for all living creatures on earth. Water crisis is looming all over the world. The steep rise in population is putting a huge pressure on water availability. In the last century, the world population tripled and the usage of water increased by 6 times. By the middle of this century, it is estimated that there will be an additional 3 Billion people. And the requirement of water will be much more than our planet can provide.

For example, the population in Visakhapatnam has increased by 1 million in the last decade, whereas the availability of water for the city remained the same. We have seen acute shortage of water this summer in the city, because of failure of monsoon ast year. So the importance of water conservation and proper usage of water is the need of the hour. World wide, it is estimated that millions of people live with less than 15 liters of water per day, whereas, in the United States and other developed countries, an average of 600 liters of water is used per day per person. 5 million people were displaced world wide due to contaminated river systems, which is more than those displaced by way of wars. As per United Nations report, 1 in 5 people lack access to purified water. And one child dies of contaminated water every 1 5 seconds. The water crisis is real and immediate steps are required to stem the problem. It is said that we are running out of water before we run out of oil. Water shortage will lead to food shortage. Countries like Chins are already seeing a steep drop in food production for want of water.

India is also not far behind in this regard. Water Problem is fast becoming Hunger problem. Industry is facing a thirst for water. Agriculture is facing a thirst for water. All living creatures on this planet are facing a thirst for water. So the following steps should be taken immediately: Promoting Water Conservation- ethod we collect the rainwater either from the roof or from the ground. This collected water is stored in tanks for use later. This is the easiest way to conserve the water. Recycling: Recycling water is another way by which water can be conserved.

Used water from factories and homes is sent for cleaning. It is then pumped into the sea or returned to a river. This water is again taken out and used. Water Conservation in Commercial & Agricultural Applications- There are many water saving devices which can be used for conserving water in commercial offices and public places. They are Infrared or foot operated faucets, hich uses short bursts of water for rinsing in a kitchen or bathroom and thus can save water. Waterless urinals or having infrared operated cleaning system in urinals which saves water. Ђ Pressurized water brooms for cleaning sidewalks.

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