There are more than one hundred countries face different levels of fresh water shortage, and thirty years later there will be 28 to 33 hundred billion people have shortages of water. People lived in fresh water shortage countries cannot even have water to keep them alive. Because of the fresh water shortage, people lived near the southern Sahara desert abandoned farmland, and 200,000 people died from that.
Africa, Asia, North American, Europe, South America and Australia have different levels of stress on river basins, so that basically eans these places are already having fresh water shortage or have more risk to face fresh water shortage. As the fresh water shortage is getting worse, people should know what the problems are, what the causes are and try to solve them. Many people may not feel any fresh water shortage in their life because they did not have any experience of it, but fresh water is still a life-or-death issue in many places in the world.
There are currently one out of sixty people in the world cannot have safe drinking water, which means that there are 1. 1 billion people waiting for clean drinking water every day. Safe drinking water shortage results in 6,000 people are getting killed every day. In addition there are 3 billion people without access to clean water sanitation, and half of hospitals in the world were full of patients suffering from various diseases. There are 2. 2 million people a year dead of lack of water or dirty water-borne diseases. The distribution of water in the world is not even, so that leads some people who did not feel water shortage waste water.
For example, people lived in water-rich place can take a 25 minutes shower, but there are still billions of people do not have water to drink. After all of these horrible statistics, the facts are although in some places have fresh water resources, they might still suffer from water shortage. Because how to save, use and distribute water recourses can determine the satisfaction of family, farm, industrial and environmental needs. Meanwhile, population growth, urbanization and increased domestic and industrial water consumption are deteriorating the situation.
China and Africa are both facing water shortages, but the causes of water shortage are different. Although there is a great amount of water resources in Africa, Africa still facing serious water shortage ecause of the poor management and use of water. For some African countries, the lack of water has challenging their lives. Latitude, climate and precipitation are the majority reasons that cause African water shortage. In some African area, each household’s daily water consumption is only 40-50 liters, but in the United States, the water consumption per household can up to 700 liters per day.
In southern Africa, only 51% of their populations can use drinkable water. For now, Africa’s population is growing at an annual rate of 2. 4%. Africa’s water shortage will still be a serious issue. China has a total of 2. trillion cubic meters of freshwater resources, which is 6% of global water resources, and it ranking fourth in the world, but because of the huge amount of population, China only have 2,200 cubic meters per capita, which is only 25% of the world average. Due to China’s rapidly increasing demand for water in urban and industrial areas, China will be in a water shortage situation in a long time.
Although the water resource is very limited, people still overdratt ground water. Ground water is one of the most abundant resources in the earth, but if people pump it faster then it can seep in, the supply of groundwater will deplete and it will ead the water shortage. Another reason is water pollution. The water resource is already very limited, but water pollution is still a threat. In South China, a whole river is too polluted to drink. The waste of water is also one of the major reasons. Different causes lead to China and Africa’s water shortage, and there are some solutions to them.
Because freshwater resources on land are only 2. 53% of the total amount of waters on earth, and most of them are mainly in the North and South Polar Regions of solid ice. While scientists are studying glaciers using method, under the present conditions it is still impossible to use. As for some practical solutions that everyone can take, first people should be educated to change consumption and lifestyles. This solution can apply from individual use to some major company like GE. Next, recycle wastewater is a good solution.
Some countries, like Singapore, are trying to recycle to cut water imports and become more self-sufficient. The rich East Asian republic is a leader in developing advanced technology that cleanses wastewater for other uses, including drinking. Because 70 percent of the world’s freshwater is used for agriculture, so improve irrigation and agricultural practices can also make a big step f saving freshwater. After all, saving freshwater shortage is still a big challenge, and people also need some upcoming advanced technology to save the world.
Anyway, people did something to destroy the water they have, so water will pay back. Everyone should regard water shortage as a serious issue, and everyone should take the responsibilities to save water. Water shortage is a global issue, and everyone lives in the earth should realized how serious this problem is. People should be more educated to take the responsibilities. We can start from something simple, like decrease the purchase of bottled water, or reduce the shower time.