Waterscapes

Colins dictionary defines waterscape as a picture, view, or representation of a body of water. But in architectural terms waterscape may be defined as the built environment designed to enhance the effect of water contained or represented within it. HISTORY The origin of water usage in a large scale in gardens can be traced back to over-hanging or cantilever Gardens of Babylon where water was transported to each terrace by the help of water wheels. In Egypt water handling instruments like Shaduf , water clocks and Egyptian water wheel or Noria started being used.

In nature water seems to go through three distinct phases. Firstly it is wild in small carefree rivulets which have been created out of springs and surface channels and in which in due time unite to become a river. Secondly, it is captured and put to labour in irrigation channels reservoirs and buildings of all kinds. Thirdly the shapes formed not only in natural movement but those of captivity have inspired man to fashion water as a work of art. It is probable that the inspiration of natural movement culminated in Bermini’s fountain in Rome and that of water in captivity is the Persian paradise garden.The Persian paradise garden, evolving over a long period as was an Oasis in the desert. The channels of water became symbols, and surface of water was aerated and kept in movement by low fountains.

The first Persian garden is the Pasagarde’s garden where Char Bagh concept of Paradise garden was used for the first time. Here the streams represent four rivers culminating in the pavilion. The Chinese gardens were basically Imperial in nature i. e. in the form of summer lake palaces of the kings where huge water bodies or lakes were present.It is not until we came to Italy in Renaissance that we meet the full glory of the fountains and this was no doubt due to the difficulty in Mesopotamia of not merely acquiring water but of giving it a sufficient spray to give a fountain display. The Greeks took little interest in water design as they were never for off from the dramatic seacoast.

On the other hand Romans developed a passion for water mainly for their urge for sensual material pleasures. They built great baths and to supply these brought water from the surrounding hills through aqueducts. Romans also built a bath in the courtyard within their homes for private use.It was in 622 A. D. that the flight of Mohammed from Mecca to Medina took place. In short time, the Muslims were carrying their faith and water designs eastwards to India and westward to Spain.

The essential characteristics of water to the Arab were in fact it’s rarity. It was a precious element that needed to be used for ablutions and for irrigation because life itself depended on it, water entered their religion. Hence water was the essential ingredient of the Islamic garden. In Persia it was brought, the garden by “Quanat” from acquifiers located at the base of snow covered mountain ranges.Water flowed by gravity in underground pipes and flooded the channels and tanks around which the garden was organized and served as the irrigation system for the trees and plants. The water would then flow out of the garden and supply the agricultural and domestic needs of the community. The systems were entirely gravity fed and the gardens ideally and conceptually flat were in fact on a slight gradient.

Because of agricultural irrigation origins the water in Char Bagh in later Mughal Gardens is also contained in water carrying channels.In India Mughal gardens became the patrons of beautiful landscape and waterscape elements and their glory cab be witnessed in Taj Mahal, Agra, Nishat Bagh Kashmir, Humayun’s Tomb, Delhi and many other Mughal Gardens. Also stepwells developed in India because of utilitarian purposes in North- West India to draw out water in scant-rainfall areas of Rajasthan and Gujarat. These wells are called as Baori or Baoli in Rajasthan and Vav in Gujarat. Italian gardens mark the beginning of fountains, cascades, water organs etc. which form the basis of Modern Watercapes.Eg:- Villa d’Este Fountains that take exhausted minds back to nature find their greatest expression in magnificent Villa d’Este, the most spectacular theatre d’eau in the world.

Spread out on a steep slope in the Latium Hills, the garden contains innumerable variations of fountains and the forms imaginative designers can give water. Ligorio linked hundreds of fountains in a series of liquid episodes-gurgling or flowing gushing or seeping, springing or churning-following one unifying theme: the water source. A reservoir above the villa collects water from the river flowing through Tivoli.Each morning, around 11:00 A. M. , after enough water has been amassed, gardeners open the valves, releasing water down the hillside and stirring the grounds to life. Water from one fountain spills over its carved concave lip, rushes down the slope, disappears beneath the garden steps, and passes through a staircase railing to activate another fountain down below.

Every fountain relies on another for its water. If one fountain is plugged with leaves or fingers, then the next one in the sequence coughs and sputters. The most glorious expression of this liquid continuity is the Avenue of the One Hundred Fountains.Lining a long terrace, nozzles direct water upward. The water fans out in the chlorophyllous garden light and then falls back to the stones in drops, forming rivulets among the moss and plants. In between, berceaux leapfrog down the line past vigilant D’Este eagles, while the row of one hundred jets squirt in succession, forming the famous water perspective. Moving up the hill, transept sidewalks extend from the main axis while the fountains steadily get bigger, wetter, and louder.

Shaded paths lead to a stone arcade with a room made entirely by a veil of showers.Water gushes from massive pillars to fill an oval basin that receives invading, long-range berceaux. Nearby, crashing cascades are flung back up in the air by a firing range of jets d’eau, enlivening an elaborate stage setting for concerts at the hydraulic organ up above. In another fountain, water replaces fire in a stone dragon’s toothy mouth while urns marching up the balustrades shoot arcs of water at the imaginary flames. Over the years, jets, cascades, and sprays have saturated the stone metropolis, disintegrating the magnificent buildings into crumbly shells.Throughout the garden, the soft curves of the walks and balustrades blend with the natural contours and slopes. Erupting jets d’eau imitate in white water the similarly shaped green cypresses in the distance.

While water is immediate and close enough to be felt, it can also be viewed in the distance, springing, dancing, and rushing through la bella natura. Finally, in the courtyard of the villa, at the top of the hill, a fountain with one small jet ends the performance that began down the hill with the equally tiny fountain at the gate.The lesson of the Villa d’Este is that water is a natural material, and that, although controlled by gravity and natural laws, it can be coaxed, shaped, and transformed: We can try to achieve harmony with nature, we can try to ignore it, or we can try to master itor we can find ourselves, at the end of the twentieth century, in a confused, ecological attempt to do all three at once. PRINCIPLE OF DESIGN USED IN CONTEMPORARY TIMES: – . The principles involved are- – SCALE – IMMEDIACY – MATERIAL – LIGHTING – ACOUSTICS – MOVEMENT SCALE: – Scale implies a comparison by an observer between a water feature and a size reference.The size reference may be a human figure, similar water features or the overall spatial environment around the feature. Scale is a ratio and its assessment varies from person to person, though with in reasonable limits.

The observer, first tries to relate any water feature to himself. Hence small water bodies are easy to assess in size since they relate to the human dimension directly. Larger expanses of water induce the observer to search for vertical objects of relatable sizes on the far end to comprehend the horizontal dimension across.Trees or buildings on the fart side give a clue to the expanse of the feature and also help in defining the spatial environment. The visual comprehension of the third dimension of a surface structure involves a recognizing of its height. The third dimension, which is depth in case of water, is easily comprehensible. It is well known that the laws of reflection makes the water body appears much shallower than it actually is.

The slope of the bank around the water feature often provides a clue to the observer as the slope is expected to continue unchanged into the watery depths.The clarity of water also affects the assessment of the depths and hence volume of the water bodies. In general dark murky water convey a feeling of depth, hence making the water feature appear deeper. The importance of size and volume of the water feature relative to the overall spatial environment cannot be understood, this would mean examining the feature in as large contest as possible. It also means looking of the volume of the space in which the feature will be located. The height of the surrounding buildings must also be considered.The water gardens of Kashmir are excellent examples of compromise between human scale and the scale of the natural environment.

The presence of the lake and mountains is acknowledged in the planned scale, however the use of the terraces make each segment of garden small enough for humans to relate to. In the Mughal tomb gardens the layout of the water features were successfully planned with the scale matching the volume of the structure they built for. For example in Taj the central quadrangle with the famous reflecting pool in sized to reflect the whole facade of the mausoleum. IMMEDIACY: -The degree of involvement that a water feature provides determines its immediacy. The involvement may by psychological or physical in nature. Physical interaction with water will imply a degree of mental involvement. The degree of involvement is and should be left to be a question of individual perception.

The immediacy of a feature depends on the accessibility it offers. This is why the fountains of Rome were often built below the road level, so that the pedestrians could sit on the rim next to the water. Hence the architectural and landscape treatment of the water’s edge is very important to provide immediacy.The auditory and tactile sensations of water are as important as our visual impression of it; A successful design should allow the observer to come in actual physical contact if desired. The degree of involvement sought by humans depends upon the climate of that region. People in a cold climate will look upon water only as a visual element. However to the inhabitants of a hot dry climate water assumes a physical, psychological and spiritual significance.

The Mughals descending from the cold plateaus of central Asia found the plains of India to be too hot dry and dusty.Thus they evolved the concept of an open pavilion under which water flowed. In the Mughal gardens stone seats were often located over small cascades or in the centre of the pools. Now days many designed water features go even further in providing a multitude of possibilities for contact with water. MATERIALS: – Most of the early pools and fountains were constructed out of stone combined with bronze, but these materials are hardly used today, due to prohibitive costs. One of the best stones, available is Granite. It is readily available in large monolithic blocks and resist erosion.

Secondly wet granite exhibits its superb grains and coloration best. Brick provides exceptionally rich textures on pool surfaces. It is however generally used as a cladding over concrete. Brick varies considerably in its absorption capacity depending on the type of clay used, the density and the firing temp. The bricks used under water must be treated with sealant. Also the joints must be of the best quality. Metals like copper and brass can be used in small pools.

Both these metals attain an attractive colour when wet. However if the water used is chlorinated the metal will slowly turn back. The most common material used is concrete.The quality of concrete, which makes it, such a versatile material are well known but unfinished concrete does not bled with water. Hence some sought of texture and coloured surface treatment should be rendered. Other materials which have been used but are less common are fiber glass and wood. LIGHT: – In designing water features it is often overlooked to provide on orientation that takes advantage of direct sunlight.

All jets and waterfalls are spectacularly transformed when they are viewed with the sun behind them, illustrating the spray and every drop of water. However it is not always possible to take advantage of natural light.Then night lighting of water features must be provided. Water can be illuminated from with in or with out. Under water lighting should be shielded from direct view. The objectives should be to let the viewer see the effect rather than the source of light. One of the latest innovations has been to use fiber optics for lighting.

This allows neon effects to be created without the rigidity of neon lights. The light glow appears soft and lends on ethereal quality. The Mughal element of the “Chini-Khana” in which lamps were placed behind cascade is a superb example of the amalgamation of water and lighting.ACOUSTICS: – This is one of the fields in which the least attention is paid to while designing. The sound of water is an important as the feel of water. The amount of turbulence, drop distance, the angle and depth of the catch pool all control the sound of water. The shallower the receiving pool the higher the pitch will be of the sound of water as there is less depth to cushion the falling water.

Another principle, which can be exploited, is that if waterfalls are directly in front of a cavity the sound will be magnified and carried much more than with a flat surface.If built into a stream, a waterfall should look as natural as possible and be constructed so that water actually tumbles over rocks and does not just drip down behind them along the butyl lining. Select smooth, regular rocks with flat faces that will fit snugly against the vertical face of the lining and fill in any gaps with waterproof resin. Arrange the waterfalls so that they match the lie of the land or, conversely, re-landscape the surrounding garden in order to make the waterfalls appear as natural as possible. If your garden does not have a natural slope, you will have to construct an artificial mound out of heavy soil.Use a pump that is strong enough to produce a good flow of water, as water gushing down a waterfall is much more impressive than a lacklustre trickle. Narrowing the part of the stream that contains the waterfall will make the flow seem stronger, but do not use this trick too often otherwise it will become obvious.

A series of waterfalls with white, frothing, tumbling water will make an exciting cascade and create an excellent centrepiece. In gravity based systems the vertical drops control the velocity, whereas the form over which water flows controls the direction, appearance and turbulence.The volume of flow is also important to the final effect. When the water flows through a channel it is possible to create turbulence in it by narrowing or turning the channel at a sharp angle, widening has the opposite effect. Angular protrusions in the channel can also help to produce turbulence whereas streamlined protrusions will produce eddies. If the channel in which water is flowing is a shallow one, splashy frothy appearance can be created by random roughening of the channel bottom. Patterned roughening can create waves.

The advantage of using turbulence and white water is that a relatively small amount can be made to appear much greater and more dramatic. Free falling water is produced by an under cut drop. The lip over which water-flows are called “weir”. Weir’s must be designed to relate to the volume of water and the desired effect. The rounded weir sharply undercut gives a straight vertical sheet fall. A flat straight edged weir creates the most transparent sheet. An irregular surface will produce a fragmented sheet.

When the velocity of water flowing over a weir reaches a certain point the water will not fall vertically but at an angle.Also turbulence in the upper pool can disturb the sheet of falling water. This can be overcome by accelerating the water approach using some sort of a ski-jump. 2. FOUNTAINS Fountains are decorative features of both outdoor public spaces like squares, and intimate indoor spaces in private dwellings, and they reflected the architectural taste and styles of their time. Fountain water can be inspiring or threatening, but it can also be life giving and purifying. The fountain dignifies the water, makes it special, respects and cherishes it.

Fountains can also assert mastery over nature, with stilled water controlled in a geometric shape or spouting water jetted against gravity by machinery. While most Oriental gardeners abstained from shooting and spraying water, seventeenth- and eighteenth: -century French architects and landscapers very consciously tried to forcer la nature, enthusiastically assembling water devices to produce dazzling effects, some natural and some mechanical. These designers were not, however, trying to stifle or upstage the nature that they were forcing.Instead, they sought to animate and enrich nature by applying the reason and technology they had developed. Water spouting through nozzles was admirably suited to help achieve these ends, since designers could easily alter and improvise upon the nozzles’ shapes and sizes. Each fountain form has its appropriate place, but sometimes they can all be combined into a grand composition known as a theatre d’eau . A fountain does not have to be grand, though, or require exotic flushes of water to be successful.

Fountains are hypnotic; as psychological outlets they are enduringly charming.Not only does the refreshing play of water attract people, but water and its stories are a source of constant fascination for landlocked city dwellers. The function of the fountain constitutes the basis for each design. It is important to distinguish between the fountains as a mere decorative element or the symbol of part of town. The choice of location influences the size and design of fountains, consideration must be given to the local climate. The wind can blow dirt into the basin however surrounding trees and buildings can act as wind breaks. The construction of fountain basin constitutes important part of design.

The basin depth is generally between 200 and 600mm, but sometimes as little as 100mm. But it lights have to be installed they require a greater depth. A sunken basin is a particularly attractive feature but wind and rain sweep dirt into the water. A 100 mm high rim is sufficient to prevent this. This rim can also be treated to form a series of seating steps, but by far the most important part of the fountain is the it. There are four types of jets:-Aerated jets. Spay heads, smooth bore nozzles and formed nozzles.

History Throughout history, fountains have symbolized sacred sources, the origin of life, and the initial stage of the water cycle.At one time fountains were usually at the ends of aqueducts, where the water pressure was the mightiest and the need for distribution most urgent. The combination of fertility of the “life-giving side” and the notion of “purifying creation” reinforces two important images of the water source. Before the advent of modern plumbing, fountains and their networks of aqueducts and cisterns were essential systems in towns or cities. To emphasize their importance, people since ancient times have decorated their civic wells and fountains with symbols of their town’s history or the mythology associated with the water source.Fountains symbolize both the emergence and disappearance of fresh water. When water is pure and clear, it can also indicate chastity.

According to legend, a virgin sprite named Trivia led a band of parched Roman soldiers in 19 B. c. to the source of a secret spring near Salone, a town east of Rome. For the local townspeople, such an underground spring was the stuff of folklore-no one had ever actually seen or tasted the water, but it was endowed with magical, restorative powers.When the soldiers took news of the discovery back to the city, Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa, the master builder of Augustan Rome, ordered the construction of an aqueduct to carry the water through the campagna to the city. This unusually pure and sweet-tasting liquid became known as the Aqua Virgo, Latin for virgin water-according to the hydrologist Sextus Julius Frontinus, “It was called Virgo, because a young girl pointed out certain springs to some soldiers hunting for water, and when they followed these up and dug, they found a copious supply. ” The legend of the dancing maiden spread quickly, as did the water she led the soldiers to.

In a survey of the Roman waterworks, Frontinus tabulates that by a. D. 70 the Aqua Virgo was connected to 2,504 taps in Rome, distributing the clear, pure water to basins, camps, public buildings, and ornamental fountains. At the Trevi’s helm, Oceanus towers in the center of a triumphal arch. As the protector of the sea and a godfather to the Greek pantheon, Oceanus guards the wellspring of life and commands its torrential release. With an outstretched arm, he rushes unreservedly into the wind, which ruffles his beard and flaps his cloak into a frenzy of marbleized drapery.Beckoning to a pair of winged stallions with his index finger, he charges them with life, just as Michelangelo’s Sistine Chapel God of Creation does for Adam.

The Trevi is the ultimate joining of water and architecture. Like the water it plays with, the fountain is a repository for countless dreams and fantasies. Yet despite its mythic and grandiose theatricalities, the Trevi never loses its amazing ability to relate to everyday customs. People gather daily around the fountain to bask in the sun and spray and gossip about politics, the price of vegetables, and the latest neighborhood scandal.In the evening, the Trevi is a mandatory stop for locals on the passeggiatta circuit, while droves of tourists ritually flip a small fortune of lire, quarters, or marks over their shoulders into the basin, supposedly guaranteeing them one special wish as well as a return trip to the Eternal City. Overlooking all the activity is a stone panel most of the time unnoticed by the Trevi’s visitors . This carved relief, above Oceanus’s left shoulder, depicts a young girl standing to the side of a group of men who observe a spring gushing from the ground.

The water of trevi, then, in constant agitation down below the panel, is the same water that the virgin sprite Trivia led the soldiers to on that hot summer day two thousand years before. Having already outlived one language, the Italian Acqua Vergine continues to stream from the same ducts as the Latin Aqua Virgo so long ago. People know and love this place not only for physical attributes, but also for the colorful tales and legends passed on from generation to generation. For all of history, people depended on fresh water, so its source was always n important place-where people gathered, settlements flourished, and cities were established. Within towns or cities, then, fountains typically designate important urban places. Even today, when most cities do not rely on public fountains for their water supplies, fountains still become focal points in communities. The most important part of the fountain is the jet.

There are four types of jets: – Aerated jets. Spay heads, smooth bore nozzles and formed nozzles. ? Aerated jets introduce air into the descharged water in order to create foamy effects.All aerated jets are designed to be discharged under water so that the jets would not be visible but they require more pressure to reach the same height than a jet, mounted above water. These jets can also cause a tidal surge within a basin. If this condition occurs the nozzle will alternatively shoot water up to the normal height and then shoot up two or three times more. The basins therefore have to be large enough to avoid surge.

? Spray heads come in an endless shapes and types and ordinarily consists of a number of fine jets often in a circular or fan shaped.The simplest nozzle produce a stream of water either clear or accreted. If set at an angle they throw parabolic water arches, these can also be installed under water to create turbulent. ? Formed nozzles are shaped in order to produce a certain pattern and the range of possibilities are infinite. Some of these heads are adjustable. As these heads utilize a thin shed of water for their effects the result can be effected adversely by wind or dirt in the nozzle. Animated fountains: Animated fountain in front of the Brooklyn Museum consists of laminar flow water jets.

Animated fountains often use laminar jets that provide water that moves like ping pong balls in animation, so that it breaks up, as the height varies, and the behaviour of each jet operates independently with up to 5 Hz modulation frequency 1/5sec, so that the water packets collide with themselves. For example, the such fountains can spit up one ball of water which then explodes, showering people with a fine mist. A musical fountain is a type of fountain that uses laser and harmonics principles to create three-dimensional images that look like holograms.Other meanings: In Islam a fountain is the name of the place in the Mosque where worshippers can wash before Prayer. A water fountain is designed to provide drinking water and has a basin arrangement with either continuously running water or a tap. Modern indoor drinking fountains may incorporate filters to remove impurities from the water and chillers to reduce its temperature. A splash fountain or bathing fountain is a fountain intended for people to cool off in.

Although many fountains were not designed as bathing fountains, children of all ages often use them for that purpose.Some fountains are fenced in, or have raised edges as a barricade to keep people out. In other situations, fountains are designed to allow easy access, and feature nonslip surfaces, so that people can safely use them to cool off in on hot summer days The key to making successful and captivating fountains is to control the way water moves to produce whatever effect is desired (animating, enlivening, relaxing, soothing, exploding. dancing, swirling, or splashing) without losing control of the water or ruining the fountain with tangles of pipes, wires, or gizmos.The sound of falling water is soothing and gives the impression of coolness. A fountain also keeps water moving and this will help prevent the growth of algae in a pond, as well as oxygenating the water for fish and other aquatic animals. Fountains are most usually associated with pools.

The simplest kind consists of a pump submerged under the water with the fountain nozzle just above the surface; various spray patterns are available. Stand the pump on a pile of bricks or a wooden framework, if necessary, to bring the nozzle up to the correct height.The fountain head will not be obtrusive as interest is focused on the water, but it is possible to disguise it by burying it in a pile of stones with the water emerging from the top. For more of a feature, install a sculptural fountain, which can be placed in the centre or at the edge of the pool. It is essential that such fountains are attached to a secure base and care must be taken not to puncture the pool liner. Fountain Utilities: NOISE Fountains also are used for noise mitigation. The sounds of splashing, flowing or moving water can mask bothersome noises.

A person seated by a fountain in a park or courtyard hears the fragile sounds of water rather than distracting city noises. Although mitigating noise is a practical application of a fountain, the desired result is to create a more pleasant environment and thus an aesthetic purpose also is served. Fountains sometimes are specifically designed and installed to mitigate noise. A fountain’s ability to mask noise is in direct proportion to the loudness of its water sounds. A fountain with a high-pressured flow dropping or falling from a significant height into a pool or onto a hard surface would create clamorous water sounds.These could mask relatively high volume noises. The surrounding area or setting of a water fountain also affects its potential to mitigate noise.

For example, a fountain in a courtyard surrounded by adobe walls creates a different effect a softer, more absorbed sound than does a fountain amidst tile or stainless steel surfaces. The latter reflects more sound and has more potential to cover louder noises. The presence of walls or other surfaces can focus and direct the sounds of a fountain COOLING EFFECT A fountain also can be used to cool an area.For cooling to occur, a fountain must be active, with water and air mixing to encourage evaporation and a cooling effect. The more interaction between water and air, the greater the potential for cooling. For example, a reflecting pond, with a smooth, flat surface, obviously exposes less water to the air than does a misting system spraying small particles of water directly into the air. A fountain that sprays water into the air thus cools more effectively.

A fountain’s potential to cool an area also depends upon ambient conditions.A fountain located within an open plaza surrounded by concrete won’t provide much relief from the heat of the sun. More comfort would be provided by a fountain within an enclosed area with shaded surfaces. Fountains installed on the north side of buildings and walls are sheltered from the sun and thus provide better cooling. Trees and vegetation also provide shade By increasing evaporation and dispersing the cooled air, air flow or currents also influence the cooling potential of fountains. In the Middle East fountains are designed to better take advantage of air flow to increase a cooling effect.A small hole or opening in a wall would capture the prevailing wind, concentrating and directing it over the fountain.

Increased evaporation results, and the cool air is transported beyond the fountain and into the interior of courtyards or buildings. By creating micro-climates, fountains can make a cooling difference within a relatively small area or zone. Fountains are not a likely strategy, however, to mitigate the heat island effect of large urban areas. The heat absorption of the urban mass is too substantial for fountains to counteract its effect on a large scale.Fountain Lights: Underwater lighting design Highlight the decorative elements of your garden water feature [pic] Fountain lights can make a huge difference to your garden water feature by highlighting decorative elements, illuminating the water and fish and adding colour to the fountain itself. Dramatic designer effects can be created with different colored lenses and many illumination kits now include these as standard. Getting the most out of your fountain lights Light reflects off water beautifully and if placed well fountain lights can change the look of your water feature dramatically.

Deciding where to put your lights is very important. The first consideration is how deep to place your lights. The deeper the water the more the light will disperse. Having clear water also helps the illumination as dirty water deadens the effect of your lighting. If the water in your fountain is moving this will distort the effect of the lights causing constant changes to the effect. The Aesthetic Benefits of Fountains Along with serving practical purposes, fountains also provide aesthetic benefits. All fountains, even those designed for a specific use, are generally aesthetically pleasing.

To cool air or mitigate noise, water must move, and moving water attracts and appeals. Aesthetics therefore is built into almost all fountains. At their best fountains are monuments to the fascination of water. That water is beautiful, even in an irrigation ditch or flowing from a tap, is easily overlooked. Water play in fountains is water out of the context of every-day usefulness and provides an opportunity for humans to appreciate the power and attraction of water. Fountains especially allow urbanized people, far removed from natural sources of water, to indulge in the pleasures of free flowing water.Water conservation devices also are recommended for fountains.

For example, wind shut-off valves can be installed on fountains to turn off water flow during windy periods when evaporation is high. Such fountains are equipped with anemometers to measure wind conditions. Also timers can be installed to turn off fountain flow at night when it is less likely to be observed. Fountains not using water Karesansui Gardens : In the Japanese Gardens of Karesansui the rocks are etched to gaive textures of flowing streams and the sand is raked in the form of water streams.Mercury fountain: For the Barcelona exhibition of 1937 Alexander Calder created in remembrance the miners who were killed at the mercury mines at Almaden a memorial fountain, which uses mercury instead of water. (Today it is enclosed behind glass. ) Gin fountain: During New York City’s first drought emergency in modern times, Gene Moore, window designer for Tiffany’s, created sparkling fountains hung with diamonds.

On a Tiffany card in a corner was the note: “This is not New York’s precious water. This is gin. ” And it was gin. POOLS Pools are one of the most popular garden features.They can be any size, from a small, formal raised structure built on a patio, to a full-sized lake. They must be sited where they will receive plenty of light; the water plants themselves will provide ample shade and protection for wildlife. Formal gardens are best served with ponds that are regular and geometric in shape: circles, squares, ovals and rectangles are all suitable.

For an elaborate feature, use a more complex shape such as a cross, a hexagon or a dumbbell shape. Triangular pools can be constructed, but these tend to look better in modern gardens where they are more likely to fit in with asymmetrical designs.The pool should be edged in a formal way, with paving stones or bricks. Any planting should be within the pool itself and is best restricted to one or two choice water lilies or a few marginal plants with impressive foliage. Informal ponds can be of any shape but they are usually sinuous in outline. They should be well in integrated into the surroundings and blurred at the edges with waterside planting that starts on the bank and moves down into the water. Informal ponds are often constructed in association with bog gardens, and once fully planted, these wet, spongy features will help merge the pool into the landscape.

There is a wide choice of construction methods and materials to choose from, the major ones being concrete, butyl rubber liners and pre-formed shells. As a general rule, more irregular shapes are easier to construct using liners or pre-formed shells rather than concrete; concrete is best reserved for formal and raised structures. The disadvantage of pre-formed shells, however, is that you are restricted to the shapes on offer and it is difficult to blur their edges with planting; once installed, they should be edged with stones and plants.It is much easier to disguise the edges of pools made with butyl rubber liners, and these flexible liners can accommodate virtually any shape of pool, sinuous or angular. Plant the shallows of the pool with marginal plants, keeping the marshy area around the pool for bog plants. Place water lilies on the pool floor, along with other deep water aquatics; these should be planted in planting baskets and carefully lowered into the water. Introduce several clumps of submerged plants and floating aquatics to help keep algae at bay and to encourage all manner of wildlife.

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