If each vendor had their own standards and protocols, we would have a harder time making devices that we use every day to inter-operate. Imagine buying specific BRAND of ROUTER for a SPECIFIC computer just to use the internet; so if you have a Sony computer you would also need a Sony wireless router to connect to the internet via provided Sony made routers.

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We would to have multiple routers depending on the devices we own and probably would not be able to use internet when we’re in a café, library, or airport because of incompatibility. Our whole society including the financial aspect would slow down a little bit. Ex 3.1.2

Give another example of a model that is used to visualize something that is difficult to observe or perceive. How does the model make it easier to understand?
Laptop and Wireless router model is the easiest model to understand because we use them every day. HP Laptop Wireless ConnectionLinksys Wireless Router
Modeling Communication
Ex 3.1.3
Based on what you already know about networks, what are the different layers you think would be necessary for communication to be mapped to a model? Consider direct connections between host devise and connections that require other routing equipment, such as a hub, switch, or router. Hub – physical

Switch – Data Link
Router – Network
Lab 3.2: The OSI Reference Model
Ex 3.2.1
Define each layer of the OSI model in your own words and state what each layer provides. Use your textbook or internet research to support your answer. 1. PHYSICAL (Layer 1) – this layer conveys the bit stream: electrical impulse, light or radio signal – through the network at the electrical and mechanical level. It provides the hardware means of sending and receiving data on a carrier, including defining cables, cards and physical aspects. 2. DATA LINK (Layer2) – divided into 2 sub layers: MAC, which controls how a computer on the network gains access to the data and permission to transmit it, and LLC which controls frame synchronization.

At this layer, data packets are encoded and decoded into bits. It furnishes transmission

Page 2 What would happen if wireless devices were not governed by the Wi-Fi Alliance and each vendor had its own standards and protocol? Essay

protocol knowledge and management and handles errors in the physical layer, flow control and frame synchronization. 3. NETWORK (layer 3) – Provides switching and routing technologies, creating logical paths, known as virtual circuits, for transmitting data from node to node. 4. TRANSPORT (layer 4) – provides transparent transfer of data between end systems, or hosts, and is responsible for end-to-end error recovery and flow control. 5. SESSION (layer 5) – this layer establishes, managers and terminates connections between applications 6. PRESENTATION (layer 6) – this layer provides independence from differences in data representation. E.g. encryption. 7. APPLICATION (layer 7) – This layer supports application and end-user process. Ex 3.2.2

Ex 3.2.3
Briefly explain the deencapsulation steps in the communication from host B receiving a message from Host A destined for an active application. A. Converts data to bits for transmission
B. Packages the data for end to end transport
C. Adds the data-link header and trailer
D. Adds the network IP address to the header of the frame
Ex 3.2.4
Explain why routing devices do not need the upper layers of the OSI Model to route traffic. What is the highest layer of the OSI model used to by the router to decide where to forward traffic?

Lab 3.3: The TCP/IP Model
Ex 3.3.1 Using your textbook and Internet research, create a mapping between the TCP/IP model and the OSI Reference Model. What is the distinct difference between them? TCP/IP: Physical -> Data Link -> Network -> Transport -> Session -> Presentation -> Application OSi Model Network Interface -> Internetwork -> Transport -> Application Main difference:  The application layer in TCP/IC handles the responsibilities of layers 5,6, and 7 in the OSI model. The transport layer in TCP/IP does not always guarantee reliable delivery of packets at the transport layer, while the OSi model does. TCP/IP also offers and option called UDP that does not guarantee reliable packet delivery. Ex 3.3.2 Identify the layer in which each protocol resides in according to the TCP/IP model. Link Layer contains communication technologies for a local network. Internet layer (IP) connects local networks, thus establishing internetworking. Transport layer handles host-to-host communication.

Application layer contains all protocols for specific data communications services on a process-to-process level. Ex 3.3.3: The most common protocols used from this suite are IP, TCP, and UDP. Briefly describe the purpose and function of each of these. IP – principal communications protocol in the internet for relaying datagrams across network boundaries. TCP – one of two original core protocols of the internet protocol. Provides reliable, ordered, error-checked delivery of a stream of octets between programs running on computers connected to an intranet or the public Internet. Lab 3.4 Data-Link Connections

Ex 3.4.1: The data link introduces physical addressing in the form of MAC.

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