Winter Sports

10 October 2016

The Individual competition is a classical style biathlon race covering 20 km for men and 15 km for women, with 4 shooting lanes. Biathletes start at intervals of either 30 seconds or one minute with each competitor choosing his (her) own shooting lane. The first and third shooting stages are taken from the prone position, while the second and fourth are fired standing. Biathletes are penalized one minute for each missed target. The Sprint is an abbreviated version of the Individual competition and one in which speed is a key factor. Men race 10 km, and women 7. km, each with two shooting rounds – one prone and one standing. For every missed target, a competitor must complete a 150-meter penalty loop. In the Pursuit competition, athletes start in a staggered fashion depending on their time in the sprint race. Men ski 12. 5 km and women 10 km. Each covers four shooting stages—the first two are taken prone and the second two from a standing position.

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As with the Sprint competition, athletes ski a 150-meter penalty loop for each miss. The Mass Start competition is one of the newest biathlon formats. It covers a distance of 15 km for men and 12. km for women, with four shooting stages, the first two prone and second two standing. In each race, the 30 highest ranked athletes start together simultaneously and take their place at the first shooting stage depending on their starting number. Athletes line up at the remaining shooting stages depending on the order in which they arrived at the firing line. A 150-meter penalty loop is added for each miss. The Relay consists of four-person national teams covering distances of 7. 5 km for men and 6 km for women. Each leg of the race includes two shooting stages, one prone and one standing.

As opposed to the individual disciplines, biathletes in the relay have 8 rounds of ammunition for each firing range – five stored in the magazine and three extra rounds that can be loaded by hand, if necessary. Once all 8 rounds have been fired, the athlete must ski a 150-meter penalty loop for each missed target. Sports Equipment * Any form of ski techniques is permitted in the biathlon. However, only skis and ski poles may be used. * Ski boots, providing support and controlling motion. * Ski poles made of composite materials such as carbon-fibre. Their length cannot exceed the height of the athlete using them. The biathlon rifle is a 5. 6 mm calibre weapon that is carried on the athlete’s back in a special harness with the barrel pointed up. * A one-piece special ski suit helps maintain a constant body temperature and minimizes wind resistance. * Skis cannot be shorter than 4 cm less than an athlete’s height. To increase glide, various special waxes are applied to the skis. 2. 2 Skeleton as it is Skeleton is the discipline where competitors aim to drive a one-person sled in a prone, head-first position down an ice track in the fastest time. Olympic skeleton events consist of four runs timed electronically to 0. 01 seconds. The four runs are contested over two days and the final standings are determined by the aggregate time of the four runs. If athletes complete the competition in a tie, they receive the same award.

Skeleton consists of two events in the Olympic program — individual men and individual women. Equipment * The sled is made of two runners. The frame must be constructed of steel. The same sled must be used in all rounds of the competition. It must weigh no more than 43kg for men and 35kg for women. * Gloves are made of leather and are worn for protection. * Handles are used for the start push and during the race. They must be covered with soft material. All competitors must wear helmets, which are hard plastic and equipped with a chin guard and visor. The racing suit is a tight-fitting bodysuit made of elastic fabric that may have padding sewn into the elbows. * Shoes are made of synthetic material and have spikes on the soles for traction during the push start.  3. Curling as it is Curling is a sport game played between two teams composed of four players each. The game is played on ice, and members of both teams deliver a 19. 96 kg stone towards a circular target area, called the “house” alternating with an opponent. The objective is to get the stone closer to the Center of the circles than any stone of the opposition. One game consists of ten “ends”.

During each end, each team steers eight stones — two stones per person, alternating with the opponent. Team members deliver the stones in a set order presented to officials before the game. The first player is known as the lead. He/she is followed by the second, then the third (also known as the vice-skip) and finally the skip, or team leader. After all 16 stones have been delivered the score is determined. Only one team can score per end. A team scores one point for each of its own stones located in or touching the house that is closer to the center of the house than any of the opposition’s stones.

The team with the most points after 10 ends is the winner. If the score is tied after the 10th end, an “extra-end” period is added. Extra ends are played until one side wins. There are two medal events in curling: men’s and women’s team competition. Sports Equipment * A broom is used to sweep the ice surface in front of the stone. Sweeping creates a film of water between the stone and the ice, which reduces friction, thereby reducing the stone’s deceleration and straightening its trajectory or “curl”. Curling brooms can have fabric, hog hair, or horsehair heads.

There are also corn/straw brooms, although they are used rarely nowadays. * Special curling shoes have different soles. One has an extremely slippery sole made from Teflon, plastic or steel and is used on the sliding foot. The other is made from rubber and provides much-needed traction on the ice. * A curling stone is traditionally made in Scotland of rare, dense granite. Each stone weighs 19. 96 kg, is polished and is circular in shape. * Each playing surface is 45. 72 m long and not more than 5 m wide, with a target — or house — at either end.

Ice Hockey as it it Ice hockey is played on a large flat area of ice, using a three inch (76. 2 mm) diameter vulcanized rubber disc called a puck. This puck is likely to be frozen for high-level matches to decrease the amount of bouncing and friction on the ice surface. The game is contested between two teams of skaters. A team must have no more than six players on the ice while the game is in progress. As a rule, these players are: one goalkeeper, two defensemen, three forwards (two wings and one centre). There can be fewer players on the ice as a result of penalties incurred.

Also, a goalkeeper can be replaced by a skater during a penalty or at any other time of the game. A regular ice hockey game consists of three periods of 20-minutes each, with a 15-minute intermission after the first and second period. There are Olympic competitions for men and women. Equipment * Equipment includes: a helmet, shoulder pads, elbow pads, mouth guard, protective gloves, heavily padded shorts, athletic cup/jock strap, shin pads and a neck protector. * Goalkeepers’ equipment includes: a helmet, catcher and blocker gloves, neck guard, chest protector, athletic cup/jock strap, heavily padded shorts and leg pads. The puck is made of vulcanized rubber, must be approved by the International Ice Hockey Federation (IHF) and must be primarily black in color. * Sticks are made of wood or other material, such as aluminium or plastic. Luge as it is Luge is considered as one of the most dangerous Olympic winter sports.

Luge involves sliding at high speeds on single- or two-person sleds. The run takes place on a specially built track. The athlete starts in a seating position and after pushing off lies supine and feet-first. The sled is steered by changing the luger’s center of gravity. The winner of the competition is the rider with the fastest time. During a run, the sled can reach speeds of over 140 km/h. There are three classes of Olympic competition: singles men, singles women and doubles. Men and women compete on the same track, but women’s and doubles’ starting line is further down the course than men’s.

In male and female singles, athletes take four runs down the track. The four times are added, and the fastest total time determines the winner. The competition takes two days to complete (two runs per day). Doubles luge is a one-day competition in which pairs of athletes take two runs down the track. The fastest total time determines the winner. There is no written rule that says a team must comprise members of the same sex, but men traditionally ride together. Three sets of medals are awarded for each event. Sports Equipment * Lugers wear specially designed race suits to reduce wind resistance. Luge gloves are spiked at the fingertips to assist riders as they accelerate at the start. * Riders wear helmets with clear or tinted visors that extend under the chin to reduce wind resistance. * Riders wear special shoes that typically have firm, smooth outer soles. 6. 1 Figure Skating as it is Figure skating in the Olympic Games includes both men’s and women’s individual events, pairs mixed, and ice dancing mixed. At the present time, four sets of medals are contested in the Olympic figure skating program. Individual men’s and women’s figure skating comprises a short program that includes seven compulsory moves, and a free skate program.

A well-balanced free program should include jumps, spins, and steps. Likewise, pairs mixed skaters first perform a short program (7 moves) and then a free skate program. Compulsory moves include lifts, spirals, throws and synchronized jumps. One of the most significant criteria in the judging of programs is the degree to which a pairs’ movements mirror one another. Ice Dancing is the only discipline that allows the use of music with vocals. Dancers much adhere closely to the rhythm of the music and express the character of the music with appropriate emotion and feeling.

Until the 2010-2011 season, ice dancing comprised three performances: A compulsory dance (in which the performance closely follows a prescribed set of steps set to a piece of music with a particular character and musical rhythm); An original dance, carried out in keeping with guidelines provided by the International Skating Union; And a free skate dance, the theme and music of which is left to the skaters’ choice, although the choreography of the dances should include a specific set of elements. At present, ice dancing competitions, like those of other forms of figure skating, consist of two programs.

The short program combines a compulsory dance—consisting of one or two parts—and certain prescribed elements. The theme and rhythm of the musical accompaniment is determined each season by the ISU, while the length of this dance—currently 2 minutes and 50 seconds—is similar to requirements of other forms of figure skating. The free dance has not undergone significant changes over the years and the basis of its scoring remains the quality of the compulsory elements in close dancing positions, the unison the skaters display and their ability to express the character of the musical selection.

Sports Equipment Figure skaters use the following athletic equipment: * Custom-made boots made of thick, stiff leather, with extra laces and wide tongues, which provide the ankle with both flexibility and support. * High strength carbon-steel blades with concave grooves along their entire length and teeth in the toe of the blade to allow for pushing off when performing certain types of jumps. * A suit made of stretchable material that does not restrict the skater’s range of motion. The outfit should correspond to the character of the musical selection and reflect the artistic idea of the program. A standard skating rink is 30 by 60 meters in size, with plastic or sliding boards. Figure skaters need the highest quality ice, which is possible with the aid of ice resurfacers. The thickness of the ice over its entire surface cannot vary by over 0. 5 cm. 6. 2 Short Track as it is Short track speed skating is a type of speed skating where the athletes compete on a 111. 12 m oval. At the Olympic Winter Games, Short Track Speed Skating consists of eight medal events. Men and women compete in 500m, 1000m, and 1500m races. There is a 5000m relay for men, and a 3000m relay for women. Short track speed skating is an elimination event in which skaters race in packs and try to outskate and outwit fellow competitors within their heats.

The first skater to cross the finish line is the winner, regardless of time Individual competitions begin with 32 skaters and feature heats of four athletes at a time. The first two skaters in each heat to cross the finish line continue on to the next round until only 4 athletes are left to vie for medals. The men’s and women’s relays are two-day competitions consisting of a semi-final and a final. Eight teams of 4 athletes are divided into two heats of four. Every team agrees on the number of laps each athlete should skate. The only exception is the last 2 laps that are covered by the same skater.

The top two teams in each semi-final advance to the final. Sports Equipment * The short track blades are very sharp and measure 40-46cm lengthwise. Short track boots lace higher up the ankle than traditional skates and are constructed from customized foot moulds and with heavier materials to help stabilize the foot and ankle around the corners. * Gloves are worn to protect skaters’ hands from blades. * Hard plastic helmets prevent potential head injuries resulting from crashes with competitors, the ice or side walls. * Skin-tight suits mould to the skater’s body to reduce wind resistance. Knee, shin, and sometimes neck guards offer protection from the blades of the skater in front. Speed Skating as it is In speed skating, athletes travel around a 400 m oval rink as fast as possible. Speed skating at the Olympic Games consists of ten individual events: 500m, 1000m, 1500m, 5000m for both men and women, women’s 3000m, men’s 10,000m and Team pursuit for men and women.

Thus 12 sets of Olympic medals are awarded in speed skating. In each event, skaters race in pairs using inner and outer lanes on a standard 400m oval. Athletes change the lanes at every lap to skate the equal distance. All events are skated once, with the exception of the men’s and women’s 500 meters, which are skated twice. The final result is based on the total time taken over the two races. In a team pursuit, men skate 8 laps and women–6. 2 teams composed of 3 skaters participate in each heat, with teams starting from opposite sides of the oval at the same time.

Each skater in a team becomes a leader of the group taking all air resistance while his partners skate behind him. The race comes to an end only when the last skater on a team crosses the finish line. Sports Equipment * Skaters use special “clap skates” whose blade isn’t attached to the boot. These boots are usually made of kangaroo leather. * Skaters wear skin-tight racing suits with hoods to reduce air resistance. 6.

. 1 Alpine Skiing as it is The Olympic Alpine competition consists of five events each for women and men. These include Downhill, Slalom, Giant Slalom, Super Giant, and Super Combined.

The rules are the same for men and women, but the courses differ. Ten sets of medals altogether are awarded. The downhill (DH) features the longest course and the highest speeds in Alpine skiing (120 km/h). Each skier makes a single run down a course one after another and the fastest time determines the winner. The slalom (SL) is an alpine skiing discipline that involves skiing between poles (or “gates”) spaced much closer together than in Giant Slalom, Super-G or Downhill, resulting in quicker and shorter turns. Slalom is a two-run event; the skier with the fastest combined adjusted time for the two runs wins.

Giant slalom (GS) involves skiing between sets of gates spaced at a greater distance from each other than in slalom but not as great as in Super-G. The number of gates in this event ranges from 56 to 70 for men and 46 to 58 for women. The final result is based on the total time taken over the two different runs. The Super giant slalom (Super-G) incorporates aspects of both downhill and giant slalom racing. It involves skiing between widely spaced gates as in Giant Slalom, but with fewer turns over a longer course and with higher speeds approaching those achieved in Downhill.

The Super Combined event includes one Downhill or Super-G run and one Slalom run on a single day. Sports Equipment * Reinforced plastic boots are specific to the competition discipline. Bindings are the link between the boots and the skis. Gloves are made of leather or synthetic material * Ski goggles protect the eyes against weather, glare and the effects of speed on the eyes. * A tight-fitting helmet is designed to protect a skier’s head from injuries. * In the downhill and Super-G, poles are curved to fit around the body to reduce air resistance. Skis are made of various materials (wood, composite fibers) specially adapted to the wear and tear they undergo during a race. Skis in downhill are 30% longer than those used in slalom in order to provide added stability at high speeds. * Skin-tight racing suits are made of materials that minimize air resistance. 2 Cross-Country Skiing as it is At the Olympic Winter Games, the cross-country skiing discipline comprises twelve different events.

They include sprint, team sprint, individual start, pursuit, mass start and relay events. The Individual Interval Start Race is the traditional race format, where skiers compete against the clock. The skiers start the race at 30-second intervals in reverse order to their season ranking. This means that the top ranked skier will start last. The winner of the race is the skier with the fastest time. Coaches along the course time their athletes, calling out their rank at specific points of the race. Racers who are overtaken by faster competitors must step aside if ecessary to allow the faster skier to pass. In the Olympic Individual Interval Start Race, men compete over a distance of 15km (in loops of 5km) while women race a ski 10km (in loops of 5km). The Sprint Competition will, after a qualifying round (in individual interval start format), consist of 30 skiers competing in elimination heats. In the elimination heats (quarterfinals and semifinals) the skiers start side by side and race one time around a 1. 3 – 1. 6km loop. The two fastest skiers in each heat advance to the next round.

For the 6th positions in the semi-final heats and for the 5 and 6th positions in the final heat, the next two fastest competitors who are ranked 3rd or 4th (called “lucky losers”) will advance. Six skiers compete in the medal round for the Olympic medals. The team sprint competition consists of teams of two skiers skiing one at a time, tagging their teammate upon completing a 1. 5 km leg. The two skiers alternate skiing one leg each, for a total of 6 legs (3 legs each). 10 teams qualify for the finals through qualification heats, and start in a modified (arrow shape format) mass start on the first leg.

In this race, there are often rapid lead changes and high speed. The Pursuit race is an exciting mass start race where skiers ski the first half of the race using the classic technique (and the necessary equipment), then switch to the free technique (in the stadium) before completing the competition. The clock is running during the equipment exchange, similar to a “pit stop” in car racing. The first skier to cross the finish line is the Pursuit winner. The skiers are required to change skis at the halfway point, and frequently also change poles. In the Pursuit race, men race 15 km (in loops of 3. 5 km) using each technique (for a total distance of 30km), while women race 7. 5km (in loops of 2. 5 km) for a total distance of 15km. The competition course is usually laid out in such a way that the skiers pass through the stadium several times. Individual Mass Start Races are the longest individual Cross Country races at the Olympic Winter Games. In the Individual Mass Start Races, men race over a distance of 50km, while women ski a distance of 30km. The long-distance mass start events will line the whole field of skiers in rows of 7 – 11, starting a field of 60 to 80 skiers by a start gun.

This particular format can be compared to bicycle racing, where large groups of athletes use strategy and tactics to gain an advantage during the course of the race, and then demonstrate their sprinting abilities at the finish. The employment of short loops allows spectators in the stadium to see the contestants every 10-12 minutes. The first skier to finish is the winner, although it is not unusual to have up to 10 athletes vying for the victory in a photo finish. The Relay format features teams of four skiers from each competing country.

The two first skiers on each team must use the classic technique while the last two must use the free technique (usually skiing a different course). Skiers take turns competing, and tag their teammate in an exchange zone at the end of leg of the relay race. The team that completes all four legs of the race first is the winner. In the Relays, men race four 10-km legs each, while women race four 5-km legs. Sports Equipment * Cross-country boots for classic technique are similar in design to running shoes. The boots for free technique are more rigid and have more ankle support than the boots used for classic technique.

The bindings secure only the toe of the boot to the ski. * For classic technique, the poles should extend to a standing skier’s armpit. For free technique, the poles are generally longer and stiffer and extend to the chin or mouth of the skier. They are usually made of graphite or fiberglass. * The skis are long and thin, to distribute the weight of the skier and allow the skier to move quickly. Depending on the ski design and purpose, they are customized to fit the skier. * The wax can be of two types: glide wax and kick wax, also known as grip wax.

Glide waxes are used to make a ski glide faster. Kick waxes are used to provide a grip on snow when weight is transferred to a ski; they are used in classic technique only. * The suit is made from stretch fabric (lycra) that hugs the body and considerably reduces wind resistance when racing.

Nordic Combined as it is Nordic Combined events include a ski jumping competition (1 jump) and a 10 km cross-country skiing race. There are three events in the Olympic program in Nordic Combined: Individual men Normal Hill (HS 105), Team men Large Hill 4 x 5 km and Individual men Large Hill (HS 140). HS stands for Hill Size and refers to the longest safe distance flown by the best athletes on a given hill.

The individual events are also known as the Individual Gundersen and encompass one competition jump on either a HS 105 or HS 140 ski jumping hill and a 10 km cross-country ski race. Points are scored for distance and style in ski jumping. The racers with most ski jumping points will start first in the cross-country portion, followed by the next best jumper after a gap which reflects the difference in their jumping scores and so on. This means that the first cross-country skier to cross the finish line is also the winner of the event.

This method of competition, also known as the Gundersen method, was introduced in the mid 1980s. The team event is similar to the individual event, but contested by teams of four athletes. Each takes one jump on a HS 140 m hill, with all the jumps counting towards the team total. A difference of forty-five points translates to a one minute advantage in the second event, the 4 x 5 km cross-country relay. As with the Individual events, the Gundersen method is used to determine starting times in the relay. The winner is the team whose final skier crosses the finish line first. Sports Equipment Special boots with high instep allowing skiers to lean forward during flight. * The binding must be mounted parallel to the run-direction. The binding must be placed in such a way that a maximum 57% of the entire ski length is used as the front part. A connection cord that is a part of the binding attaches the ski to the boot and prevents the wobbling of skis during flight. All portions of the ski jumping suit must be made of the same material and must offer certain degree of breathability. Special jumping skis can be up to a maximum length of 146% of the total height of the competitor.

Cross-country ski equipment * The rear of the boot is built up to shore up the ankle, which is constantly under pressure in the free technique. * Skis are narrower and lighter than those used in Alpine skiing. They have long, curved ends and rise up slightly in the middle. They can be up to 2 m long. * Bindings secure only the toe of the boot to the ski. * Ski poles are long and straight, often reaching up as high as a competitor’s chin. * The suit is made from body hugging stretch fabric. * Glide wax is chosen depending on snow and weather conditions. 8.

Ski Jumping as it is

To date, only men can compete in ski jumping at the Olympic Games. Women’s World Championships have been held since 2009— currently the highest level event for women. Three men’s ski jumping events are held at the Olympics: Individual Normal Hill, Individual Large Hill and the Team Event. 3 sets of Olympic medals are awarded in ski jumping. Individual Normal Hill is the only ski jumping event on HS 105m hill (K-95). The longest distance reached is around 105m. There are two jumps (the first round – open to 50 who qualified on the day before and the final round – limited to the top 30 after the first round).

The athlete with the highest total score is declared the winner. Individual Large Hill is contested on HS 140 m hill (K-125). The best jumpers land at around 140 meters. There are two jumps: the first round, open to 50 who qualified on the day before; and the final round, limited to the top 30 after the first round. The athlete with the highest total score is declared the winner. The Team Event runs on HS 140 m hill (K-125). There are four members in each team, and there are two jumps (a first and a final round). All teams start in the first round. In the final round the field is reduced to the eight best teams.

The team with the highest total score over the eight jumps is declared the winner. Sports Equipment * Special boots with high instep allowing skiers to lean forward during flight. * The binding must be mounted parallel to the run-direction. The binding must be placed in such a way that a maximum 57% of the entire ski length is used as the front part. * A connection cord that is a part of the binding attaches the ski to the boot and prevents the wobbling of skis during flight. * All portions of the suit must be made of the same material and must offer sufficient breathability.

Special jumping skis can be up to a maximum length of 146% of the total height of the competitor.

Freestyle as it is

There are three events for men and women in the Olympic Freestyle program: moguls, aerials and ski cross. 6 sets of medals are awarded for freestyle events. In Mogul, skiers race down a course over a series of bumps or moguls. Each athlete is required to perform two tricks and jumps. The Olympic format includes a one-run elimination round followed by a one-run final of 16 to 20 skiers. Competitors receiving the highest score for their tricks and jumps in the final round are declared winners. Scores are determined by judges who evaluate the quality of a skier’s tricks, and the quality and difficulty of the jumps.

Judges also give points for speed according to a special formula. The Olympic aerial competition consists of a two-jump qualifying stage followed by a two-jump final. The combined scores from the two jumps determine 12 athletes qualified for the final. Scores from the qualification round are not counted in the finals. Competitors are judged on jump takeoff (20%), jump form (50%) and landing (30%). Ski cross consists of several rounds of competition. In the qualifying stage, athletes race down a course approximately 1000 meters long with turns and obstacles. 2 athletes with the best times are then divided into groups of four and compete to determine who proceeds to the next round of competition. The top two competitors in each group then move on to the medal round. Sports Equipment * The standard length of mogul skis is typically 180cm for men and 170cm for women. For aerials, the standard ski length for both men and women is 160cm. Ski cross skis are similar to those used in the Super Giant Slalom. * Ski poles are used to aid the skier in accelerating, turning and maintaining balance. In moguls the color of knee pads often contrasts with that of a ski suit in order to draw the judges’ attention to the skier’s expertise. * Ski boots should provide sufficient support to allow an athlete to withstand the force of impact. * The helmet is made of hard plastic, protecting the head and preventing serious head injuries in both aerials and moguls.

Snowboard as it is There are six snowboard events in the program of the Olympic Winter Games: men’s half-pipe, women’s half-pipe, men’s parallel giant slalom and women’s parallel giant slalom, men’s Boarder-cross and women’s Boarder-cross. sets of medal are awarded altogether. The half-pipe competition takes place in a bowl-shaped course dug deep into the hill. Using speed gained on the slope, snowboarders come up over the rim of the pipe and perform acrobatic aerial tricks. The object of the half-pipe is to perform difficult tricks with perfect form. The parallel giant slalom features head-to-head matches on the mountain. After the qualification round, a 16-person tournament is established and athletes compete under the knock-out system on two side-by-side courses until there is a winner.

The Boarder-cross event is held on a challenging route including jumps, bumps, berms and other obstacles. The heats consist of four riders who start at the same time, with the best two in the finish proceeding to the next round (where the athlete with the best time in the previous round goes first). Finally, the four fastest snowboarders make the final and compete for medals. Sports Equipment * A specially designed flexible board for half-pipe is essential for balance and tricks. * The Alpine board is stiff and narrow, which is ideal for turns and high speed. The Boarder-cross board is designed to allow high speed, combined with a maximum of tolerance and flexibility to avoid mistakes in the jumps and obstacles. * Snowboard footwear is usually soft boots, while boots for alpine snowboarding are firmer. * A hard plastic helmet is compulsory for all snowboard competitors.

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