Legal Concerns Related to the Development of Wireless Technology31 Economics in Relation to Wireless Technology33 Psychological considerations and sociological effects43 Personal Communication43 Emotional Disconnect45 Worldly Effects 50 Media Influence51 Impact on Education52 Impact on USA54 Environmental Implications55 Implications for Wireless Technology56 Wireless Waste56 Analysis59 Health Concerns59 Moral and Ethical Implications61 Conclusion64 Works Cited67 Introduction to Wireless Technology (Wenclewicz) You just awoke and looked out your window, and to your surprise, your car is covered with 5 inches of snow.
You have to leave for work in 40 minutes but you still need to take a shower and get things ready for your day. You do not have the extra time to go outside and warm your car up before you leave, but you have remote start and with just a click of a button, you are able to start your car while you are getting ready. This is just one of the many things that we might take for granted that wireless technology has provided for us in the world today.
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Wireless technology is a technology that has changed the world and how it operates.
Wireless technology is the ability to communicate between devices without wires. Wireless technology is found in many devices ranging from cell phones, computers, GPS units and house alarms. Through the advancements in our technology, it has become less common to function without this technology. Wireless technology provides the ability to transfer information between points without an electrical conductor connecting them. Wireless technology has provided us the ability to have long range communications that would not normally happen if wires were needed.
It is important to understand that wireless technology increases the chances for people to steal your information. So having a better understanding of the various types of wireless security will increase your ability to enjoy this technology with limited fear. The issue that there is no wire for people to access does provide a greater chance for security issues. When you are operating on a wireless network, your communication can be monitored by anyone who is in the area. Another issue is limiting access to your network by only allowing certain people viewing ability over the wireless connection.
Being able to limit those who have access to your information over wireless is harder than limiting access to those who are physically attached to a switched point on the network. By the end of this paper, you will have a better understanding the overall history of wireless technology not only how it changed the world, as we know it today, but also further, how wireless technology has affected Germany. You will have a better understanding of how wireless technology has helped the German economy as well as how it has led to political power.
Germany has made much advancement as a country in wireless technology and because of wireless technology; they have improved themselves as a nation. Overview of Wireless Technology (Wenclewicz) Wireless technology is nothing new to us, how we look at it is what is different. Looking back at the early times of man there have been many different forms of wireless communications that have taken place. Many tribes used drums as a form of communication, the message would be sent by beating on drums. This sound would only travel a short distance so its effectiveness was very limited.
A way that the tribes overcame this issue was by setting up different points and each drummer would acknowledge the sender’s message by a series of beats on the drum. After the message was confirmed received then the message would be sent to the next receiver. In the times of the American Indians, the tribes would use smoke signals as a form of wireless communication. The downside to this form of communication was the limited distance based on line of sight. Due to a limited alphabet and the issues, that the wind causes would increase the chances that the communication would be lost or misinterpreted.
Soon followed was the introduction of the semaphore flag. The semaphore flag system is one used to convey information at a distance by using signals with flags, paddles or gloved hands. The downside to this form of wireless communication is that it is limited to line of sight as well, and that because this had to take place in the open the chances of your message being stolen is increased. Science that Drove Wireless Development (Wenclewicz) “In the nineteenth century, light beams were used for short-haul communications, particularly in military contexts.
Very detailed messages could be transmitted by a coded sequence (Morse code) of blinking lights from sender to receiver. Again, this was effective over limited distances and provided a quiet, yet visible means of communication. Drawbacks included limited distance, unauthorized reception of information due to visibility at various angles, and risk of interception. Security was always suspicious, so a form of alphabetic encryption was introduced as a safeguard. This required an ever-changing code set, along with special handling and extra time to manually decipher the transmitted message.
Furthermore, the cipher code had to be kept current at all locations to achieve correctness. ” (Denham, 2009) Wireless technology has been traced back as early as the 1800’s. Wireless technology came about because of many individuals who all had one common ability and that was the ability to think outside the box. A man by the name of James Clerk Maxwell helped discover the science of electromagnetism. Electromagnetism is the interaction of positive and negative charges that have come together and regulated by one force. There are four main effects resulting from these interactions, all of which have been clearly demonstrated by experiments: 1. Electric charges attract or repel one another with a force inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them: unlike charges attract, like ones repel. 2. Magnetic poles (or states of polarization at individual points) attract or repel one another in a similar way and always come in pairs: every North Pole is yoked to a South Pole. 3. An electric current in a wire creates a circular magnetic field around the wire, its direction (clockwise or counter-clockwise) depending on that of the current. . A current is induced in a loop of wire when it is moved towards or away from a magnetic field, or a magnet is moved towards or away from it, the direction of current depending on that of the movement. “ (Article Alley, 2008) During this time, the Heinrich Hertz who was a German physicist who furthered clarified and expanded on the studies from James Clerk Maxwell. By doing more experiments, Heinrich Hertz helped advance the use of radio waves and antennas. The biggest discovery that Heinrich Hertz had took place over a 2-year span from 1886-1888.
It was during this time he was able to prove that electrical energy could be transmitted at the speed of light in the form of electromagnetic waves. One of the biggest outcomes from this finding was his ability to learn that these waves could be polarized, refracted and reflected which is similar to light. Hertz used an end-loaded half-wave dipole as the transmitting antenna and a resonant half-wave receiving loop operating at a wavelength of 8 meters to produce what is known as short radio waves. He focused the waves with a reflector and showed their presence by means of sparks in the wire loop gap that was a few meters away.
It was Hertz’ experiments coupled with Guglielmo Marconi’s inventions, which lead to the birth of wireless technology. During this time, Marconi was able to transmit signals without wires for a distance of over 1 mile. It was soon after this accomplishment that Marconi was granted the first patent in 1896 for wireless telegraphy. It was in 1897 that the first wireless company Marconi’s Wireless Telegraph Company Limited was formed. During this time, Russian Professor Alexander Popov was trying to create a thunderstorm detector, and while doing this he stumble across a device that could receive radio waves.
His invention allowed sailors to send out communication to station on land, which lead to the first use of radio communication to date. “Nathan Stubblefield, widely believed to be the inventor of the wireless telephone device more than a century ago, was an eccentric melon farmer who worked in isolation from his barn in the foothills of Kentucky. He described himself as a “practical farmer, fruit grower and electrician. ” His friends described him as plain and unassuming in his manner, yet secretive. The only individual he trusted was his 14-year-old son and assistant, Bernard.
Stubblefield’s device reportedly worked by audio frequency induction. It was composed of a system of wires suspended between metal rods, with the transmitter placed on a train carriage or boat. When a vehicle or vessel neared, a signal was sent through the air to the telephone using magnetic fields. It could be heard at the other end of the wire through another phone. ” (Denham, 2009). Signal Types (Wenclewicz) It was in the 20th Century that the transmitting antenna was established. By using this device, it helped prove that a transmission of a message could be sent back and forth while bending and traveling the speed of light.
It was during this time that Reginald Fessenden was able to transmit the human voice, up until this point the only confirmed transmission has been Morse code. It was from this point that wireless technology began to rapidly advance, in such was that in 1910 Magnus Ericsson used the first “car phone” which was made up of two long sticks. It was not until the 1920’s when wireless technology took its biggest improvements and developments. It was during this time that broadcasting and news stations were using radio transmissions, as well as Police departments began to use car radios and walkie-talkies.
The advancements of wireless technology proved to be very significant during WWII. During this time, the armies we able to transmit battlefield information across enemy lines, where before this time that was an improbable feat. The Germans used Enigma machines for encoding their secret military information to be sent to outposts. With Enigma, messages could easily be translated into 5 (five) letter groups that were transmitted in Morse code and then decoded by a machine using the same settings. Unfortunately, these machines had over 150 000 000 000 000 settings which made the task of decoding for the British code breakers a Herculean one. (Dubendorf, 2003) During the early parts of the war, the development of the RADAR system was accomplished. A key step in the development of wireless technology was the development of satellite communications. In 1957, President Eisenhower approved a plan to place a satellite in space to orbit the Earth to gather data about the Russians and the Earth, but the Russians were first to launch Sputnik 1, which was released into space and was only the size of a basketball. Sputnik 1 fell from orbit 3 months after launch, but during the time, it was up in orbit it was able to prove the satellite communication was possible.
The launch of Sputnik 1 opened a new dimension of wireless technology, which had great effect on political outcomes throughout the world. “The launch of the Telstar, another communications satellite, proved to be a major milestone in the development of satellite communication. On the 23rd. of July 1962, it was used to make the first live transatlantic television transmissions. Signals from the USA were seen live in many homes around Europe, making communication history. ” (Dubendorf, 2003) With the development of wireless technology over the many centuries we are able to see the results all over the world.
Today there are millions of people who rely on the use of wireless technology in one form or another ranging from cell phones to internet. The first network to carry cellular communication was Nordic Mobile Telephone which was based on an analogue standard. Analogue is any continuous signal in which the time varying feature of the signal is a representation of some other time varying quantity. These systems faced the challenge of not being able to handle the rapidly growing capacity, it was because of this that the digital technology was introduced and offered several advantages than the analogue systems.
Digital systems offer the ability to meet demands of the ever growing capacity and demands of the wireless world. Wireless Network Infrastructure (Wenclewicz) Network infrastructure for wireless technology is very vital to the all that use wireless communications in some way. Due to the ever changing world in which we live in, now more than ever we are feeling the need to “stay connected. ” These changes have implemented the IT departments and their need to support remote and mobile users. Since the introduction of WLANs (Wireless Local Area Networks) the increase of wireless technology still leave some with unanswered questions.
WLANs use electromagnetic waves for the transmission of data without wire connection between Access Points. As the distance between accesses points from the users increase the speed decreases. WLANs transmit data via radio waves which help provide and advantage because this allows for some noise and interference while transmitting data. “There are many options depending on the geographic location where you live your wireless data options may be different in your community. 802. 11b is the most current and common denominator in terms of wireless LANs in Germany. This system operates on a 2. 4 GHz system. 02. 11b can be used for networking from peer to peer to entire businesses to establish links for interconnection of networks. 802. 11a is an approved standard that operates in a different radio range 5GHz than 802. 11b and offers higher theoretical and actual data speeds than 802. 11b (54Mbps theoretical, roughly 25Mbps actual). It operates under 3 bands of spectrum and can provide up to 12 non-interfering channels. It is widely viewed as one successor to the very pervasive 802. 11b. 802. 11g is an approved standard that uses the same radio spectrum as the 802. 11b, but operates at speeds imilar to 802. 11a. One of the pros is that because it uses the same radio spectrum, it is possible that devices using 11g will be able to “fall-back” to using 11b in the presence of an 11b only wireless LAN. A con is that 11g is still restricted to the same 3 to 4 channels for design, and it may be difficult to design a high bandwidth 11g network without a significant amount of overlapping channels. A further complication is that in the current implementation of the specification, 11g clients slow down to 11b client speeds (11Mbps or less) if an 11g network supports both 11b and 11g clients.
Bluetooth is more geared as a PAN (personal Area Network) than as a LAN. It is a “standard” in the sense of a large number of technology companies have come together to develop the specification for devices that will use Bluetooth to inter-communicate with each other. Bluetooth uses the same unlicensed radio spectrum as 802. 11 (and g) and as such there is a potential that the presence of Bluetooth and 11b devices in the same area will interfere with each other. There is an IEEE standard (802. 5) that is based on the Bluetooth specification and there are efforts within the IEEE 802 working groups to have 11b(g) and 15 devices now flooding the market will not necessarily provide a comfortable level of cohabitation of the radio spectrum. Cellular and “3G” services-these are wireless data services being offered or talked about by primarily the various cellular providers (Verizon, Sprint, AT&T). For the most part, the notion is to carry data over the same radio spectrum as a cellular call, but to use different schemes to increase the data throughput.
For example, Verizon is offering Express network with a max throughput of 144Kbps and an average speed of 40-60Kbps. While this speed is perhaps double or triple previous schemes and rival tpical dial-up modem speeds, it is slow compared to wireless LAN speeds. There are even higher bandwidth services being planned by many of these same cellular providers. Infrared, laser and microwave are wireless options ranging from low-speed (infrared) to very high speed (155Mbps and beyond) lasers that also fall under the wireless data umbrella. These products are more typically use for establishing point to point links.
There are some emerging products that can provide point to multipoint service at 10Mbps (and beyond) speed of relatively long distances. There ais a new wireless wide area standard being developed (IEEE802. 16) that will allow high speed point to point or point to multipoint connections. This technology is being viewed as a wireless replacemnt or enhancement for MANs (Metropolitan Area Networks) like DSL or Cable modem. ” (DiLorenzo, 2003) History of Wireless Technology (Wilson) Wireless technology all began with a man by the name of Heinrich Hertz.
In 1887 and 1888, he had piloted a chain of experiments in Germany. These experiments confirmed that electromagnetic waves really did exist. James Clerk Maxwell had predicted their existence back in 1864 but nobody took the predictions seriously. At the same time, another man by the name of Oliver Lodge was also piloting some experiments in Britain. His experiments also confirmed the existence of electromagnetic waves. While both of these man had all of the elements they needed for wireless telegraphy, neither of them discovered this technology.
It was not until 1895 when a physics student at the University of Bologna had seen Augusto Righi’s experiments with “Hertzian waves” (Friedewald, 1999) the year before. After conducting a few experiments of his own, the student, 21-year-old Guglielmo Marconi had finally discovered wireless telegraphy. This discovery later led to his first patents. During around the same time that Marconi was making his discoveries, another man by the name of Alexander Popov was making a few advancements on wireless technology of his own.
While trying to develop a contraption that would signal when a thunderstorm was on its way, Popov inadvertently developed a radio wave receiver. With this receiver, Popov sent and received a wireless signal (Nkiruka, n. d. ) that spanned over a 600-yard area. It was due to this mishap that Popov too, gets credit for inventing the radio. In July of 1897, the Transactions of the American Institute of Electrical Engineers reviewed an exhibition of Marconi’s device (Wicks & Kemerling, 2003) and Marconi became known as the “Wizard of Wireless. Marconi went down in history as being the first person to successfully transmit and receive long-range radio signals (2003). From there Marconi went on to start up his own company, The Wireless Telegraph & Signal Company. This was the first ever radio factory (LaBarre, 2010). With his company registered, Marconi was now in the position to exploit his invention in the business world. The electrical communication technologies remained under control by Great Britain’s government as Friedewald, 2000) they had been since 1870 so Marconi’s company operated as a private enterprise, making it possible for The Wireless Telegraph & Signal Company to establish a new branch in America in November of 1899 (2000). Using the technology of the telegraph as a foundation, the spark radio was next to come. The spark radio made it possible to send out Morse code. Knowing there was not a way for ships to communicate with people on the shore, Marconi cashed in on this market by establishing the Marconi International Marine Communication Company in 1900. Marconi capitalized on this market until 1908 (2000).
In 1901, Marconi sent out the first transatlantic voice communication followed by communication from ship to shore in the year 1902 (Wicks & Kemerling, 2003). In 1904, after a few agencies decided to set up radio transmitters of their own without any coordination from the other agencies, President Roosevelt choose a couple of select agents from each group and formed “Roosevelt Board. ” Their purpose was to make recommendations for the government’s own development on radio services. With the Navy receiving the majority of the oversight, proposals were then made to place major restrictions against commercial stations (Dubendorf, 2003).
Telefunken, founded in 1903, was one of two research groups that worked in the wireless telegraphy field. Telefunken was the company that supplied the new radio station, Norddeich Radio, with their first two transmitters. Between the years of 1905 to 1908, Telefunken advanced wireless in the direction of military technology, from which the quenched spark system materialized. This actually pulverized Telefunken forward in the way of innovation. By implementing this new technology, Telefunken’s commercial success grew and so did the number of available seaside stations. The German Navy had 90 warships all equipped with wireless radios.
To advance the technology even further, the Navy decided to use the privately owned wireless company (Evans, 2010). The German government looked at Telefunken, as a trustworthy partner for achieving political goals because of the numerous close knitted ties Telefunken retained with other government officials, putting Telefunken in a position to be the main driving force in Germany’s wireless technology development. Once World War I ended, the use of radio communications grew exponentially. Seeing how useful it was during the war, people soon came to understand all of its potential, which encompassed more than just ommunication; it also included weaponry – Radio detecting and ranging or RADAR (Gugliotta, 2007). In 1935, a Scottish Engineer Robert Watson-Watt discovered he could use directional antenna to pick up lightning in the sky. He quickly learned that by transmitting radio pulses and listening to them, he was able to bounce the signal off a target like an aircraft. Measuring the amount of time it took the echoes to return to the antenna would tell him the bearing and the range of the target. In 1935, Watson-Watt presented this idea to the British Air Ministry and when World War II came into action, there were 19 radar stations in full operation.
Thoughts are that this technology may have very well been what won The Battle of Britain (2007). Post World War II, the use of the radio had quickly spread throughout the militaries and to consumers as well. The widespread usage quickly led to the research and development of other forms of wireless communications. Around 1940, wireless technology started focusing on wireless phones but it would not be until 1980, 1990 before it became known about. During the time when developers started paying attention to these phones was also right around the time of the Cold War. Money was not readily available to be dumped into such research at that time.
As such, the mobile phone was not very successful at first. After the Cold War, it was believed that the areas that required research and funding were artificial intelligence, nuclear weapons and computer graphics (Javadi, 2005). Mobile technology was just not on the list, especially since test results proved to be unsubstantiated, the FCC regulations were out of control and the risks were just too high. It would not be long before all that changed though (2005). In a matter of twenty years, cell phone usage climbed from a mere 50 thousand in the 1940’s to over 1. 4 million in 1960’s.
Now corporations were starting to take notice. This was something they wanted to be a part of and the interest in the market shifted from defense to phone calls. By 1997, there was an estimated 50 million users with new users signing on daily. The research into mobile phones also brought about the exploration and development of wireless internet. This could be seen as a wonderful benefit as far as the freedom it presented the users with but the inferences and imperfections that went along with the continual use of these devices had to be taken into consideration as well (2005).
Social Factors that Drove Wireless Technology (Wilson) The number one location for research throughout all of Europe is Germany. They have a keen sense for research and development, with recognition spreading worldwide for turning out sophisticated technological products. Andrea Noske of the Federal Ministry of Education and Research says, “Research-intensive products and services contribute 45% to value creation in Germany, more than any other industrialized country” (Noske, n. d. ).
It is important to note that Germany had 396 internationally relevant patents per million inhabitants, far (n. d. ) exceeding the European average of 158 in 2007 (n. d. ). Another fact I would like to point out is that the German Empire, for some 47 years, were industrial, technological and scientific geniuses, receiving more Nobel Prize awards in science than Britain, France, Russia and the United States put together (n. d. ). Early 20th century Germany was molded by its society. Through social approaches, practices and high principles, the society molded its technology.
It is said that many scholars will analyze a certain group or certain technologies to show the ways in which a society determines what technologies make it to the crafting table. This is based on broader social views and attitudes. They also show the ways in which technologies are created socially but on a smaller scale (Toscano, 2012). .Their point here is that a socially constructed, dialectical relationship exists between societies and technologies. In order for a social group to notice a technology, the society must somehow interact with the technology.
These social forces and real-world objectives always determine the current state and direction of technological research (2012). The society responsible for driving the construction of wireless technologies was the groups that desired advanced technology in order to be able to communicate from sea as well as places that were inaccessible for wired systems. Marconi and other supporters of wireless technology examined the images of electromagnetic science and (2012) from there decided to build this technology in a way that would meld with the larger social values for the various audiences (2012). The ideas that Marconi and others affixed to wireless exist within the context of socially maintained ideology” (Toscano, 2012). Akesson (2005) argues that to realize a technology held a lot more meaning than simply producing a working model because technological realization “goes beyond the product and depends on relations, feelings, emotions and culturally constructed beliefs about whether something is worth investing in or not” (2012). His main argument was marketing. All technologies need great marketing for recognition.
Because technologies must fit within a cultures values and attitudes, the “marketing” involved will either have to adhere or be made to seem to adhere to prevailing cultural beliefs (2012). Since a society will either accept or reject a technology the ways in which the technology fits or made to fit into (2012) their social life greatly depends on the way the audience (2012) perceives the technology. Radar makes for a larger story in science and technology. Some say that radar contributed very little to the theory that had been known all the way back to Maxwell and Hertz.
Therefore, radar cannot be attributed to the advancement of science. It can only be said that radar was simply a matter of technology and engineering. Others argue the enormous concrete significances of the development of radar stating that the technology contributed to the Allied victory in World War II, surpassing the Atomic Bomb by far. According to author Robert Buderi, it was the pioneer of many modern technologies. In his book, The Invention that Changed the World: How a small group of Radar Pioneers won the Second World War and launched a technological revolution, he discusses some of these technologies in more depth (2012).
Some specific abilities mentioned are the ability of astronomers to map the delineations of faraway planets, the ability of doctors to view internal organs, and being able to measure rainfall in distant places. He also goes on to talk about the fact that traveling by air is 100 times safer than traveling by roads, telephone calls being cheaper than sending letters through the mail, and last but not least, the ability to cook ones dinner in between TV shows with, “what used to be called the a radar range, aka microwave oven,” (2012).
Technology may not change the way people see the world or bring in new social conditions, but it does change a person’s practices. For example, the mobile phone introduced a new way of making phone calls. People can now place a phone call from almost anywhere to almost anywhere. It seems the social groups found this technology along with suburban life styles. As such, this technology was accepted within the culture. When a particular technological product proves useful, people will attempt to work the product into their social activities.
What is it that makes a technological product a technology? For the most part, anything that is computer based and “hi-tech” is considered technology by society. Technology spans a much wider context though. In all correctness, a technology is any scientific based knowledge that focuses on procedures and engineering. It is this knowledge that groups socially build into values and practices. When the group accepts the technology based on their observation of importance and application, it becomes a steadied technology created in part on the significance they identify in the actual device (2012).
Whether a device is an actual hand tool such as a hammer or keyboard, or a mental device such as a (2012) scientific method, it usually is defined as the obtainable understanding of a society diligently committed to industry and market. This of technologically advanced world’s economy depends heavily on the creation of new advancements for growth and prosperity (2012). Technological advancements include anything from engineering ideas that increase production to products produced by vastly streamlined, efficient systems.
People perceive and will continue to perceive technology as some type of tool related to work or profit, and the term “modernization” will continue to suggest that a nation develops technologies that will theoretically improve its economic position (2012). Wireless Technology Timeline (Wilson) The next three pages give a basic layout of some of the most important events that occurred during the development of wireless technology. This timeline is a basic synopsis and is not to be taken as complete. These are just some of the basic highlights starting in 1897 and ending in 2010. Political Effects on Development Wilson) In the beginning of the 20th century, developments in the area of wireless technology made a huge impact on everyday life. Today these technologies are essential for modern day living. The early wireless technology that was developed in the late 19th century is the core of our televisions and radio broadcasting. Our radar and satellite communications systems also originated from this technology. Wireless laid out the roadmap for our person-to-person mobile communications and allowed for the creation of the technology of mass intake today – the cellular technology (Mingtao, 2007).
Most of the wireless manufacturers in Germany and across Europe at this time were selling their equipment to the national navies and they could only install their equipment on huge military and trading ships reason being, aerials had to sit up high in order to detect the wireless signals with reasonable sensitivity. The only ships that were able to accommodate such equipment were shockingly huge (2007). One of the oldest tricks in the book is to send out secret messages hidden by a method called “steganography”, a Greek word meaning “concealed writing”.
With such a long history, Steganography led to the invention of invisible ink and “microdots. ” Steganography alone is not very secure. The messages were easily deciphered. It was soon discovered that by manipulating the letters in the message, the message could remain hidden even if the message was found. This resulted in cryptography, a Greek word meaning “hidden writing” (Goebel, 2012). According to Goebel, “cryptography takes two forms; “codes” and “ciphers. ” A “code” is a secret language intended to conceal a message (2012). A “cipher” conceals a plain text message by replacing or scrambling the letters (2012). Encryption” covers both encoding and enciphering, while “decryption” covers both decoding and deciphering. Together, the two fields make up the science of ‘cryptology’ ” (2012). To this day, coding and ciphering are heavily used. During World War I and II, codermakers and codebreakers flourished, especially since each side kept designing even more complex ciphers than their adversaries kept. These were deemed so important through the course of the war, that by the end, cryptologic organizations turned into huge establishments that were increasingly involved in military practice and operations (2012).
This cryptography had serious effects on German politics during the war, as it was almost unavoidable to intercept messages meant for the other side. When messages were broadcasted over the airwaves, whoever was listening could easily pick them up (2012). This left the German military susceptible to sabotage. World War II would lead to an explosion of even more, new technologies that would have weighty effects in the postwar period (2012). Legal Issues Related to Wireless Technology (Wilson) Almost from the very beginning of wireless technology, there has been a need for regulation.
Since broadcasting signals are transmitted through the air with no repute for political boundaries, regulation usually occurs at the federal level. The first regulatory actions took place in 1910 with the U. S. Wireless Act in which all American ships were to be equipped with broadcasting transmitters and qualified operators any time they were at sea. Other countries quickly followed this practice. To be considered are three different types of regulations: Spectrum Regulation, Industrial and security regulation, and Radio frequency safety regulation.
The Spectrum Regulation issues – In order to competently share the determinate (Egea-Lopez, 2004) available frequency spectrum (2004) while avoiding interference between them (2004), it is necessary to regulate the transmissions coming from the equipment. There are organizations in place that perform the regulations. They are FCC (Federal Communications Commission) in the United States, the ITU (International Telecommunications Union), the Japan Association of Radio Industries and Business, and the ETSI (European Telecommunications Standards Institute). These specific recommendations and rules apply where ) the range of a particular technology is limited by the amount of power b) electromagnetic fields (EMF) and noise emissions are at their peak c) frequency bands. Licensed and unlicensed bands exist in existence are distinguished by regulatory bodies such as ISM (Industrial Scientific and Medical) which is used the same in most countries. Because no technology is in control of these bands a variety of devices are able to share the same range of frequencies (2004). IEEE 802. 11 and the Bluetooth device both operate at this band mainly because it is free.
By law, the maximum power emission is limited (2004). Industrial and security regulation issues – Industrial areas almost always have certain restrictions placed on them and wireless is not an exception to this rule. Depending on the possible accidental risk that could occur, explosive atmospheres along with environmentally dangerous areas may be classified as hazardous areas. In this case, only fundamentally safe equipment are permitted (2004). Europe has a directive called the Atmosphere Explosive directive (ATEX) that states all wireless devices have to be certified by the CEN/CENELEC (2004).
Radio frequency safety regulation issues – This regulation pertains to the health and safety of humans, therefore the electromagnetic emissions have to limited and specific technologies are expected to obey these regulations (2004). Legal Concerns Related to the Development of Wireless Technology (Wilson) After Marconi made his discoveries, he moved to Britain to obtain financial funding for his project. With Britain’s need for quick and effective deployment of naval ships and commercial fleets, this was a perfect choice for Marconi.
He developed his invention and marketed it for military and industrial (OECD, n. d. ) needs. After only five years, a wireless signal was transmitted across the Atlantic Ocean from England to Newfoundland (n. d. ). This event won Marconi the Nobel Prize (n. d. ) in 1909 for physics. It also started a new revolution of laws and regulations. Germany sponsored a “preliminary conference concerning wireless telegraphy” (White, 2003) at Berlin in 1903 to discuss some outstanding issues in regards to the development of the wireless technology.
Though the conference proved to be a success a few areas, the topic of intercommunication procedures between different stations and their stations, remained unresolved. A document titled “Final Protocol, First International Radio Telegraphic Conference, Berlin, 1903” (2003) laid out detailed information for other countries to review until the conference convened. When the conference convened in Berlin in 1906, it was agreed coastal and ship stations were to interchange messages with each other regardless of whether the equipment was Marconi’s or a competitive supplier.
Because some countries already entered into a contract agreement with Marconi, signing the new policy would be a violation (2003). In April of 1912, a ship equipped with Marconi equipment and staffed by Marconi operators, crashed into an iceberg off the coast of Newfoundland. Distress calls were made from the ship however as the call came in, amateur broadcasters heard about it and filled the airwaves up and down the coast, creating so much static and interference that the distress call went unheard. 1. 02 people lost their lives that night. In 1912, London held an International Convention as well. Both the Berlin and the London Conventions covered international communication but for the mostly they added to the international protocols of wire-telegraphy connections. Regulations regarding radio and news stations were not addressed at this time but would be covered in depth after the tragic Titanic incident. With the prohibition of privately owned stations, many radio pioneers found themselves without jobs.
In 1920, commercial and government radiotelegraphic stations were everywhere as the world experienced a major outbreak. Radiotelegraphy became the new thing for all commercial and passenger ships. In 1930, the wireless telegraphy using radio signals was developed. This quickly became the ultimate device in communications for distant countries and lasted many years due to its reliability (2003). Economics in Relation to Wireless Technology (Tiemens) There is a lot of debate about how much governments should be involved when it comes to the economy.
Should a government raise taxes in an attempt to increase income and build a strong infrastructure or should the government limit its role and depend more on a free market and competition. Many economists could debate this question indefinitely and no matter the outcome, a government’s involvement may be necessary when the country has a resource so finite that only a handful of companies can have access to it and so valuable that it can change the entire GDP of a country, such a resource exists in waveforms.
There are only certain amounts of usable waveforms that can be used, so it needs to be divided up so not to overlap each other. We would not want radio signals being broadcast on the same frequencies as aircraft use, since this could be catastrophic interference. For this reason, governments allot specific bands of frequencies to certain industries and with the increasing value of wireless technology; this has become a great resource to a country. Many countries have turned to a form of auction to sell rights to this valuable resource.
These auctions provide companies the ability to offer a product to their customers, as well as bring in additional funds to the government. In an effort to broaden their wireless networks and look to the future with 4G, Germany recently went through such an auction. In 2008, Germany finished its analog to digital transition, which frees up a substantial amount of bandwidth. Having enough bandwidth to allocate, the German government put 358. 8 MHz of spectrum space up for auction, which concluded in May 2010. The 358. MHz that Germany auctioned off consisted of four bands: 800 MHz, 1800 MHz, 2100 MHz and 2. 5 GHz (Tolaga Research. 2010). Having four separate bandwidths for sale boosted competition since there were multiple bidders, which should then set up Germany to enhance their technology, as well as build a strong and growing economic future. One of the main functions of government is to build and maintain a strong infrastructure, which is usually thought of as freeways and bridges, but in the modern techno world, a strong broadband and wireless infrastructure is just as important.
To improve their current infrastructure, Germany set a few conditions within the spectrum auction. The winning bidders are required to focus on improving coverage in “rural markets before they are permitted to service urban areas” (Tolaga Research. 2010). Companies are forced to provide service to outlying areas with the smallest population first, then eventually getting to the cities where the companies can start providing 4G networks. These auctions not only will provide a vast wireless infrastructure for Germany, but also provided proceeds of 4. 85 billion euro ($5. 882 billion USD) (Tolaga Research. 2010). One of the top bidders in this German auction was Deutsche Telekom, which is the parent company to T-Mobile. This German company is known worldwide which says a lot about the importance of wireless in Germany. Deutsche Telekom has 130 million mobile customers, 17 million broadband customers and around 4. 6 million internet television customers in 50 countries around the world. Because of their success, this company employs over 233,000 people, has revenue of 58. 7 billion euros ($78. billion USD) and is ranked in the top 100 companies worldwide. Just in Germany, Deutsche Telekom has 35 million mobile customers and revenue of 24 billion euro ($32. 1 billion USD) and is building a strong business class offering an expanding Cloud service and network security. Deutsche Telekom is one of the biggest wireless providers in the world and with a free cash flow of 6. 4 billion euros ($8. 56 billion USD) they were one of the top bidders during the auction and will now be paving the way for a strong wireless system in Germany (Deutsche Telekom. . d. ). Building a strong wireless network can really help boost a nation’s economy, both immediately and in the future. There is evidence to support that wireless technology provides immediate jobs, boosts production as well as saving money on government expenses, such as healthcare. Germany has the 5th economy in the world and the largest in Europe but since they don’t have many natural resources they need to find other means of prosperity and with a strong wireless network this economy can flourish.
Decreasing demand for German exports, a financial crisis in Europe and high unemployment has placed a financial burden on the country (Central Intelligence Agency. 2012). The German government has taken steps to try to boost the economy and strengthening the wireless network is one-step closer. The tagline from the movie Field of Dreams: “if you build it,” they “will come” could also be the tagline for the German marketplace (Frankish, B. & Robinson, P. 1989). Building a network that will allow businesses to be creative and invest will attract companies to an already business friendly location.
According to Ernst & Young’s European Attractiveness Survey 2012: Germany is one of the most attractive business locations in the world, while an American Chamber of Commerce study found that 73% of American companies named Germany their first choice to do business with and invest in (Germany Trade and Invest. 2012). So many companies prefer to do business in Germany due to the countries welcoming attitude toward foreign investments. The German government makes no distinctions between domestic and foreign companies and with very little regulations, it is ideal for business start-up.
To entice companies and individuals from around the world to invest within Germany, the government provides incentives, such as grants for start-up capital as well as grants to help with wages as companies start hiring employees. There are over 55,000 foreign companies in Germany, employing around 3,000,000 people. The majority of investments in Germany are in ICT (information and communications technology) and software making up 18% of the GDP, so to improve the wireless sector will provide even more opportunity and growth (Germany Trade and Invest. 2012).
With such a great business environment, one field that can really succeed with a good wireless system is software development. The creation of mobile apps has become one of the most lucrative businesses and the more people that have access to wireless the more this business will grow. To date there has been 18 billion Apple apps downloaded followed by 10 billion downloads for Android. The downloads for Apple and Android apps produce $1 billion a month worldwide so there is a lot of potential for software companies, especially in a country that makes it easy for companies to do business in.
There is no direct data for Germany, but in 2011, the United States had over 5000 job posting for app developers so with Germany pushing the wireless market there is a lot of potential for jobs to be created (Executive Office of the President Council of Economic Advisors. 2012). Mobile apps are in such high demand that just two months after HBO released its mobile app, 3 million consumers downloaded it, which makes up more than 10% of HBO’s subscriber base (Executive Office of the President Council of Economic Advisors. 2012).
More companies are also turning to streaming, especially since the number of people that view video content with their mobile devices has doubled in two years and this will increase even more when more people have access to 4G or LTE. According to Dr. Thomas Schierl of Fraunhofer Institute for Telecommunications in Berlin, Germany: “Today’s mobile internet is faster than the typical DSL connection people have in their homes, which means a lot of users will choose to go online vie LTE even when at home” (Federal Ministry of Education and Research. 2013). Dr.
Schierl is in charge of combining the video compression standard currently used with the LTE standard (similar to 4G) which will allow for the best possible streaming of content. Germany is actively trying to make wireless technology better and with a better streaming format, there will more opportunities for companies to add streaming content. Many U. S. companies have been extremely successful with streaming formats such as Funny or Die blip. tv, along with many sports venues offering pay per view on mobile devices. A fast network is not only attractive to consumers but allows more opportunities for company start-ups.
There is obviously a lot of potential for jobs to be created for software developers that make entertainment apps however there are other apps developed that boosts production. With the use of mobile devices, employees are able to have video conferencing from any location, which can save time and money. There are also numerous apps that are more focused on certain industries, such as transportation logistics, inventory and sales data just to name a few. These applications allow employees to perform work functions from anywhere, which can make someone much more productive.
It is estimated that by the year 2016 there will be 830 million users of business-employee and business-consumer apps so this is definitely a growing trend that creates jobs for people developing the apps as well as increasing production for employees in other fields (Executive Office of the President Council of Economic Advisors. 2012). Besides the mobile apps boosting productions from employees, the wireless devices can also increase production by allowing employee’s work locations to be more flexible which they can then access information and resources while being on the go.
The Intel Corporation performed a study on mobile productions and found that with better mobile devices, employees were able to finish their tasks 37. 3% faster. According to this study, there was a 5% weekly timesaving, which equals 100 hours saved per employee during the course of a year. The employees in the study also commented that they had a better outlook on production; therefore, it made them even more productive while increasing their morale (Intel Information Technology. 2003).
This study involved just the mobility aspects since the employees were using laptops, but given other mobile devices such as smartphones or tablets, then the use of applications could even increase production more. Mobile apps have become an asset to many businesses and as mobile devices and wireless areas continue to grow, new business related apps would also grow boosting production at the same time. When it comes to mobile devices, applications are not the only benefit to businesses because in addition to increasing production they can also save companies money.
A growing trend for small businesses is the utilization of cloud-based storage offered by Apple and a few other companies. On-line storage is used publicly to save pictures and music, but businesses have found this to be very beneficial since this type of storage does not require any additional fees. Information can be backed-up from anywhere and the company does not have to buy expensive on-site back-up systems (Executive Office of the President Council of Economic Advisors. 2012). In addition to on-line storage, the mobile devices themselves save a company money, since they are a low cost way of accessing web-based services.
When widespread wireless is available, mobile devices can perform many of the functions of a more expensive computer so they have become a cheaper alternative. According to an AT&T survey of small business: 1/3 use a cloud based storage while ? use business based apps (AT&T. 2011). When there is a good wireless infrastructure, mobile devices can improve a countries economy because they can create jobs, boost employee production and save companies money but it can also help with one of the country’s biggest cost: healthcare.
As with most countries, healthcare is one of the biggest expenses for Germany. According to the OECD (Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development), Germany’s healthcare expenses make up 11. 6% of the entire GDP which makes it one of the biggest single expenses. Germany has the fourth health expenditure in the world (United States has the highest) so any savings within the healthcare industry can help the economy of the entire country (OECD. 2012).
Wireless technology has the ability to drastically reduce cost for healthcare by making it more efficient. With Germany working on providing wireless capabilities in rural areas, doctors will be able to interact with elderly patients in the outlying areas, which can help with preventive care while also freeing up, more time for doctors so they can see more patients. The whole system also has the ability of becoming more efficient by allowing doctors to instantly retrieve health records, diagnostic information, lab results and even medical images.
With the right apps, these records can be retrieved from any location at a moment’s notice, which saves time and money. One such company that has software that can help the medical field is Airstrip’s Technologies. Airstrip’s Technologies offers mobile apps that send real-time waveform data directly from the hospital monitoring equipment to mobile devices. Using this app allows physicians that are waiting to perform childbirth to monitor fetal heartbeats, maternal contractions as well as other vital signs so they can monitor the situation from any location.
Another very useful app is Mobile MIM, which allows doctors to have access to diagnostic images, such as MRIs, X-rays and ultrasounds that will allow fast and accurate diagnosis from any location as well as consult with peers for difficult cases. There are other apps available that can monitor blood pressure, glucose levels, bone density and even an app to record the time and place an inhaler was used which can be used to help prevent asthma attacks (Executive Office of the President Council of Economic Advisors. 2012).
Just the remote monitoring of routine patients can save a lot of money, but one of the biggest overall costs with healthcare is patients with chronic conditions. One way to battle, the cost of chronic disorders is to identify the problems as early as possible therefore keeping the patients out of hospital beds. Corventis Inc. is a company that can help with these high costs. They have developed an app that monitors a patient’s heart rate, respiratory rate and other vital signs and also detects and transmits directly to the physician any irregularities.
This will help catch any problems as early as possible (Executive Office of the President Council of Economic Advisors. 2012). Healthcare is a huge expense to a country and it is continually rising, but with the help of wireless technology these costs can be reduced which can actually help the entire economy of a country. The United States does spend more on healthcare than Germany, but according to the White House the U. S. is expected to reduce healthcare cost by $2-$6 billion, by the year 2014 with the help of wireless technologies available (Executive Office of the President Council of Economic Advisors. 012). Psychological considerations and sociological effects Personal Communication (Wells) When it comes time to speak to someone, the first device reached for is the cell phone. It is not to necessarily call, but text someone what they need or feel. Communication has changed the world in how we speak to one another. A family can now speak continents apart from each other via email, instant messaging, Skype, Facebook or Twitter. However, misunderstandings tend to occur due to lack of interpretation of body language, tone and facial expressions.
Over 66% of marriages in the US end in divorce due to Facebook (Mills, 2011). Apologies are now text instead of heard. Have we become blinded by the method in which we communicate to the point of feeling this is normal? In today’s age of wireless technology, communication has affected us in a unique methodology rendering us vulnerable emotionally numb, socially inept and psychologically indifferent without our awareness of this gradual change (Silverman & Blackwell, n. d. ). Texting has invaded the world by storm.
A software engineer by Neil Papworth, to Vodafone director Richard Jarvis, who received the message on his Orbitel 901 cell phone, sent the first text message from a computer to a mobile phone in 1992 (Turrettini, 2012). Since then, there have been an explosion of text messages from 14 billion in 2000 to 188 billion in 2010, according to a Pew Institute survey (Kluger, 2012). That number has not decreased. CNN’s article series of “We Never Talk Anymore” has revealed how much we truly do not talk to one another. Today six billion short messages service (SMS) are sent every day in the United States and over 2. trillion are sent a year, according to Forrester Research (Haraldsson, 2012). Globally, 8. 6 trillion text messages are sent each year, according to Portio Research (Kluger, 2012). The in-person communication has been lost in the midst of our new technological age (2012). The greatest fear is for the adolescent generation that sees this as a norm. As interpersonal skills are still in development, we find that texting does not aid in this development. Using text messaging halts some of the key important areas of interpersonal skills.
Sherry Turkle, a Developmental Psychologist, believes that conversations with another person teach kids to, in effect, have a conversation with themselves (2012). This enhances the skills to think reason and self-reflect. In the United States, 75% of teenagers text, sending an average of 60 texts a day (2012). According to Pew Internet research, texting is teens’ most common form of (Kelly, 2012) communication, beating out phone conversations, social networks and face-to-face conversations (Silverman & Blackwell, n. d. ). It would even appear that texting has its own new language.
Language has changed from verbally laughing to “LOL” for “laughing out loud,” “OMG” for “oh my God/goodness/gosh,” depending on the language choice, and “TTYL” for “talk to you later. ” TV shows are encouraging this method of language by vocalizing them. For example, “OMG” or “I-am-so-bored dot com. ” As depicted from The Braxton’s Reality Show. This new-age form of communicating has lost the effect of apologies. Apology text now replaces the visual sincerity and eye gazing messages of “What I did was wrong and I am sorry. ” A visual cue is missing when an apology is texted rather than said in person.
These factors are creating a state of new adults that are interpersonal illiterate will not aid their relationship building skills (n. d. ). Emotional Disconnect (Wells) Facebook is a great way of staying connected, but it can also feel like an emotional battleground. Facebook has changed communication on a global scale. From one side of the world to another there are phone applications that translate different languages and people can communicate across the globe. Emotional disconnections have allowed for cyber bullying and divorces due to a disregard for others feelings.
It is easy to do when looking at a computer screen or cell phone rather than a human being. An overwhelming 95% of social media-using teens who have witnessed cruel behavior on social networking sites say they have seen others ignoring the mean behavior (Lenhart, 2007). At least 33% teens have been cyber bullied according to Pew Internet and American Life Survey, 2011. This new form of humiliation has created new advertisements to stop cyber bullying. This type of bullying has caused many parents to send their children to online schools to avoid the bullying mentality (Allweiss, 2013). Has internet roman take over as our new form of dating?
More people are going to online match dating sites looking for a mate. An estimated 40 million Americans have tried online dating and dating sites will collectively gross $2 billion in 2012 (Barber & Bigham, 2012). Would this form of dating be similar to shopping online? There is a larger pool of choices; it offers an alternative to relying on family and friends as matchmakers. People are able to seek relationships with older age people and the increase in broadband access to the Internet has expanded the potential market. You can almost place 100 eligible bachelors or bachelorettes in your shopping cart and hope for the best.
It is estimated that 1 in 5 marriages are a result of online dating. However, there is a difference between meeting many people and finding a compatible partner. Romance is difficult to come by if the interpersonal skills were not well developed during adolescence and even worse as they grow into adults. Online dating has its positives and negatives, but many have found that getting to know the person mentally has been a better experience for them. It is not limited to any particular type of group or fad; many singles have taken to utilizing the online dating as a better method of communication (Hoggard & Hephzibah, 2012).
This is also an attractive offer for predators as well. It was estimated in 2005 that 25% of rapists use online dating sites to find their victims (Barber & Bingham, 2012). The popularity of online dating services has only grown since then. With the prevalence of rapes and sexual assault going unreported and the low conviction rate for those accused (1. 2%) (2012). Wireless technology forces us to fake our personalities because of the perception of how we are perceived. This transition of putting thoughts on the web has begun to affect the perceptions of who we are.
Employers now review potential new employees Facebook page to get a sense of their personalities. They also use this method to get an idea of whether they will represent the company in a positive way. Our self-identities are gradually being shielded by how we want to be perceived. Our identities will be shown as those we want people to see rather than who we really are. There is shift in our personalities being exploited from the internal to the external world. Our ideas and thoughts are influenced by social media version of how we should behave and feel.
We are unaware of how our own identity is being shaped in the way the social media view as an acceptable identity relinquishing our uniqueness (Taylor, 2011). Divorces are also at an all-time high due to wireless technology. Sixty-six percent of all divorces are linked to Facebook. The survey found that 81 percent of the nation’s top divorce lawyers said more clients have cited using social networks as evidence in the past five years (Mills, 2011). Married people are using Facebook to meet others, while spouses are finding out about it because the communication is freely available online (2011).
Infidelity is much easier to do because mentally we are not actually performing an act of sexual promiscuous physically, but emotionally find the connections for bonding and building an online relationship is possible. The emotions are so strong they lose their current spouses or mates and continue with their online relationships. Personal morality contradicts our way of thinking. We should be wary of the personal things we choose to put on social networks for the world to see. It leaves openings in our personal lives for someone to take advantage of the situation. This will increase marital problems more than it initially has been.
It has never intended to be an affair, but start out as a simple chat with an old friend and catch up on how things are going. It comes down to how much time we spend with the spouse versus social network sites. Wherever time is spent will most likely be where the affections will be (Hoggard & Hephzibah, 2012). Criminal activities have evolved to new heights based on wireless technology. Hackers can now access bank account information from anywhere in the world. Pedophiles now meet children on websites pretending to be another child and gaining their trust to meet them.
Serial killers have used dating sites as we have seen on Craig’s List. Society has witness these psychological changes as a whole. Sociological Effects of Wireless Technology The sociological effects on businesses in the United States have made trading and bartering become practically non-existent. An individual can now Google search a company overseas and order what they want rather than wait for a shipment from a particular store that specialize in imported products. Businesses practically must have an internet site to compete with rival companies. That is beneficial for customers that travel like military or international corporations.
I can now custom design my pizza, order and pay for it online. Small local businesses are striving to keep up with competition. At the minimum, companies have a Facebook page that describes their products and services (Passion Computing, 2012). Technology makes it impossible to resist the changes forced upon the world. To start a business one would initially register your business name in your state’s registration office. That name was utilized within that state to protect that name the business must become a company. Now with the internet, several companies can carry the same name forcing businesses to register several domain names.
Court systems are unable to deal effectively with international disputes (Passion Computing, 2012) over business names (2012), resulting in greater costs to people who want to start a business, as they must now register multiple domain names. Even if they contact lawyers to register each of the domain names and trademarks to avoid disputes (2012) they are still subject to legal action. When it comes to justice, money wins almost every time, unless companies want to relocate to safe havens in developing countries where they cannot be pursued in court (2012).
Companies can now hold meetings via wireless web conferences with international organizations. Supervisors can use emails as documentation to fire employees. Training can now be interactive and more hands-on compared to traveling, getting a hotel and sitting in a classroom or conference room. This cuts costs on travel for the attendees and the instructor. More companies, especially the government have utilized this method of meetings and cutting costs. It has become our norm for the direction businesses are heading. The same is occurring in schools as well. Earlier I discussed how cyber bullying has affected many young adults.
Some of the reactions of the parents are to allow them to take online courses to get their high school diploma. It has been a trend among adults attending college, but high school is a new realm of online education. This eliminates the social skills needed for development and growth. Hard working parents are able to work full time and attend school at their leisure. Some of the other issue with wireless technology is differentiating work and play. The eroding distinction between work and play is one of the many (White, J, 2005) contradictions at the heart of our increasingly wireless world (2005).
Supervisors are monitoring workers emails closer and using their content as grounds for termination. We find that we can maintain a rich social and cultural life while neglecting our spiritual life. Our spiritual development requires quiet, empty time for contemplation (White, J, 2005). Worldly Effects (Wells) Wireless technology has influenced humanitarian and activist groups all over the world to gain support. We are now able to see and discuss events around the world in real time. For example, the 2012 Egypt uprising began with a revolutionary message surrounding the death of a deceased 28-year-old Egyptian, Khaled Mohamed Said.
Ghonim started creating memoirs on Facebook in 2010 to acknowledge the violence and corruption in the Egyptian government. In his memoirs, Ghonim states, “All young Egyptians had long been oppressed, enjoying no rights in our own homeland” (Vargas, 2012). Two minutes after he started his Facebook page, 300 people had joined it. Three months later, that number had grown to more than 250,000 (2012). His intent was not be become an activist, but his political messages inspired thousands to rally to put an end to the injustice.
These messages play on our emotions to have sympathetic views and some even brainwashed into to taking on violent protest to aid the cause. While we were in shock and awe of what was happening, the media tends to play a role in ensuring the public is aware of all the details of the attack (Vargas, 2012). Media Influence (Wells) Media plays a huge part in wireless technology when it comes to information sharing. One of the major reasons for the widespread attention focused on media and technology in education today is the enormous financial investment being made in media and technology in education around the world (Reeves, 1998).
Media tutors educational communications with programs like Nick Jr. , and Disney Jr. My son is autistic he learned emotions from shows like “Ni Hao Kai-lan. ” As the parent, I was the re-enforcer. The intent is that they will learn something from these communications on the web and television. The idea is based on four main concepts of exposing students to messages encoded in media and delivered by technology, assuming that students perceive and encode these messages, requiring a response to indicate that messages have been received, and providing feedback as to the adequacy of the response (1998).
Media justifies its method of education by finding there is no conclusive (1998) evidence that television numbs the mind or evidence that television increases either hyperactivity or passivity in children (1998). They also claim there is no evidence that television viewing displaces academic activities such as reading or homework and thereby has a negative impact on school achievement (1998). The recommended internet and television usage is 1-2 hours per day will not denigrate their educational value.
Viewing violence does correlate moderately with aggression in children and adolescents. Forty years of research shows positive effects on learning from television programs designed explicitly for instructional purposes (1998). Most studies show that there are no significant differences in effectiveness between live teacher presentations and videos of teacher presentations (1998). Impact on Education (Wells)
The impact of computer-based instruction (CBI) in education can be summed up as computers as tutors have positive effects on learning as measured by standardized achievement tests, are more motivating for students, are accepted by more teachers than other technologies, and are widely supported by administrators, parents, politicians, and the public in general. Students are able to complete a given set of educational objectives in less time with CBI than in other more traditional approaches (1998).
Evaluation studies indicate that integrated learning systems (ILS) are effective forms of CBI, which are quite likely to play an even larger role in classrooms in the near future (1998). Others would debate the theory that internet and television would aid in education awareness (1998). Learning seems to be a result of factors such as task differences, instructional methods and learner traits, including attitudes. Richard E. Clark, a professor of instructional technology at the University of Southern California talks about the absence of deploying media devices for instruction.
Thomas C. Reeves points out that “media and technology have been introduced into schools because it is believed that they can have positive effects on teaching and learning” (1998). In addition, there is an important approach educational researchers have indicated which argues that both media and technology can effectively be used in schools as phenomena to learn both from and with (1998). In terms of learning “from” technology, it includes the instructional television, computer-based instruction, or integrated learning systems that have been implemented into classrooms.
Learning “with” technology means to use the technologies as cognitive tools to create constructivist-learning environments (1998). Impact on USA (Wells) Aside from our educational benefits from the media is the information highway of current events. Thru my CBS News application on my cell phone, I was able to watch the President’s State of the Union address on my cell phone in high definition. I was impressed with the quality of picture and speed in which the information was filtered to my phone. I turned on the television to get a grasp of the timing and my phone was only five seconds behind the live showing on television.
The media is constantly finding ways of delivering information faster. Weather. com is a site to watch the weather in real time to include the satellite image of where a storm is heading. This includes hurricanes, tornados and snowstorms. The older methods of calling on a pay phone or watching news media only on television have long since left us. We see violence online and television and we tend to see this as entertainment or in fear. It should have a lasting immoral aspect as part of our society. Wireless technology has invaded our planet greatly and it cannot go backwards.
Our relationship developments are hurting through our new technology rendering us vulnerable emotionally numb, socially inept and psychologically indifferent without our awareness of this gradual change. Environmental Implications (Vallarta) wiseGEEK defines that “A wireless device can refer to any kind of communications equipment that does not require a physical wire for relaying information to another device; a networking device that can pass data to other wireless network gear without being physically connected. ” (Kayne, n. d. In today’s society, it is almost impossible to go on through your daily activities without utilizing a wireless device. I start my day with my smartphone (iPhone) alarm wakening us up early in the morning. After awakening I go through my mail which is accessed and linked through my iPhone; and consists of both personal and business related e-mail inboxes. I also access the weather application located on my smartphone for local weather conditions, which always helps in the decision-making process for the clothing attire required for the day.
I then start my cardio workout on the treadmill for about 45 minutes toggling between my iTunes on my smartphone and my iPod selecting different types of music for motivation. Once I have completed my workout I then jump into the shower and get ready for my day while listening to music through Pandora (internet radio) that is installed as an application on my smartphone. On my way to work, I utilize the Bluetooth on my smartphone that is synced with my vehicle and listen to my music and hands-free ready device for incoming calls. If any detours are required, I can easily access my GPS through my phone.
Within 2-3 hours, I have managed to access my alarm clock, e-mail, weather, iTunes, iPod, Pandora, Bluetooth and GPS. Prior to the invention of smartphones, I functioned just fine without the need to do all of the things I currently do with a smartphone; and now it is virtually impossible to make it through the day in this time and age without a smartphone within my reach to conduct business, listen to music, check for alternate routes in the event of congestion on the highway, receive updated status’s on my son’s progress in school, and/or text messages from him when he doesn’t have any more lunch money.
I personally am not a fan of cell phones, I would prefer not to have one, and refuse to use all other applications that are available with this new technology; unfortunately, I feel as if it is no longer an option but an accustomed necessity. Implications for Wireless Technology Wireless Waste (Vallarta) There are many wireless devices available to us in this new world of technology. However, what are the implications for the environment due to this new technology?
According to (Fishbein, 2002) “on an average phones are replaced after 18 months of usage,” what happens with the waste from these wireless devices and batteries? How do other nations or countries such as Europe handle these implications? Europe implemented the Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE) Directive law that went into effect on February 13, 2003. The Europe legislation “provides for the creation of collection schemes where consumers return their used waste equipment free of charge. The objective of these schemes is to increase the recycling and/or re-use of such products.
One third of the Waste from Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE) in the EU is separately collected and managed appropriately to stay in compliance (Chevron, 1996) (note some of this might be via destinations outside the Member State of origin). The remaining WEEE is either: 1) collected by unregistered enterprises and properly treated 2) collected by unregistered enterprises and improperly treated or even illegally exported abroad or 3) disposed of as part of residual waste (e. g. to landfills or incinerators).
The European Commission has therefore revised the WEEE-Directive, in order to increase the amount of WEEE that is appropriately collected and treated, to reduce the volume that goes to disposal, and to give Member States the tools to fight illegal export of waste more effectively. ” (1996). Cell phones and other electronic devices contain hazardous materials such as cadmium, lead, mercury, beryllium, tantalum, arsenic and copper, therefore, people are encouraged to recycle their cell phones to help with the environment. This will also keep them from ending into landfills where they can pollute air, soil and groundwater.
Smartphones like my iPhone use rechargeable batteries, which are made of lithium-ion. The European Commission breaks down the type of batteries into two categories; non-rechargeable batteries and rechargeable batteries in the recycling process. “There are six main types of non-rechargeable batteries (primary batteries): Zinc, Alkaline, Button alkaline, Silver zinc, Button zinc, Lithium ion, and eleven types of rechargeable batteries (secondary batteries): Nickel-cadmium, NiMH (Nickel metal Hydride), Lithium, Lithium-Ion Polymer, Alkaline, chargeable Titanium, Lead SLI, Lead traction, Lead stationary, Nickel-iron, Nickel-zinc.
Due to the wide range of batteries that exist and the varying component metals of which they are made, there are specific recycling processes for each battery type. Before recycling can take place, the first step is to sort the batteries into groups by type. Where batteries are not collected separately they enter the municipal waste stream and are either landfilled or incinerated. ” (Batteries, n. d. ) Many big countries such as the US and Germany etc… pay small nations to accept their waste products such as wireless devices and computers.
According to Transboundary waste shipment, “The Waste Shipment Regulation (WShipR) governs transboundary shipments of waste and requires all hazardous waste movements to be notified in advance to the authorities. Some non-hazardous types of waste are also covered. Member States report on the waste that is shipped across their borders. There is a ban on exporting hazardous waste from OECD countries to non-OECD countries, due to their lack of waste treatment capacity.
Where illegal shipments of waste take place, it is typically due to material, often hazardous, being sent to another EU country or to a developing country in order to save money on proper treatment. Some of the key themes are summarized below. Analysis (Vallarta) Between 2001 and 2009 there were large increases in shipments of hazardous waste both for disposal and recovery, which implies that the EU is increasingly acting as a single market for waste. Most waste exports are from one of the older Member States to another. A small, but growing amount of waste is exported to new Member States.
The Netherlands is the biggest exporter of hazardous waste, while Germany is the biggest importer. Most new Member States export a very small amount of hazardous waste. Incineration (whether with or without energy recovery) is the main treatment method, but different types of recycling and landfilling have also increased as export volumes have grown. ” (Transboundary waste shipments, n. d. ) Health Concerns (Vallarta) What health concerns are there because of the use of wireless devices? Does wireless technology lead to diseases such as cancer or other health problems?
These are questions that not only apply to Europe but everyone world-wide utilizing wireless devices. Unfortunately, we all have known someone who knows someone that has had to deal with Cancer diseases. The American Cancer Society defines cancer as “abnormal cells that grow out of control”. There are several types of cancers that we know of today such as; prostate cancer, colon cancer, breast cancer, gastric cancer, lung cancer, testicular cancer, etc. There are also many causes of cancer such as; excessive sunlight exposure, genetic problems, obesity, viruses, and radiation (popular word we hear associated with cell phones).
We are concerned that cell phones may cause cancer because we know cell phones release radio waves, the number of cell phones users have amplified, and the amount of time we spend making calls on our phones, it is no wonder why we question how much radiofrequency were exposing ourselves to. According to the National Cancer Institute, “Cell Phone and Cancer Risk key points: Cell phones emit radiofrequency energy, a form of non-ionizing electromagnetic radiation, which can be absorbed by tissues closest to where the phone is held.
The amount of radiofrequency energy a cell phone user is exposed to depend on the technology of the phone, the distance between the phone’s antenna and the user, the extent and type of use, and the user’s distance from cell phone towers. Studies thus far have not shown a consistent link between cell phone use and cancers of the brain, nerves or other tissues of the head or neck. More research is needed because cell phone technology and how people use cell phones have been changing rapidly. (Cell Phones and Cancer Risk FactSheet, 2012) I recommend we put safety first, utilize hands-free devices like speakerphone, an earpiece or headsets and try to decrease the amount of radiofrequency we are exposed to. Currently there are no federally or national standards that identify safe levels for exposure to radiofrequency energy. Over the last few years the Federal Communication Commission (FCC) and other agencies have taken an active role in monitoring and investigating issues related to RF exposure. Moral and Ethical Implications (Vallerta) What moral and ethical implications are there with wireless technology?
There are different levels of morals and ethics in regards to wireless technology. Morals are standards of behavior or beliefs about what is and is not tolerable for a society to do. Ethics are moral principles that oversee one’s behavior. As the use of technologies, become more and more a part of our everyday interactions our decisions and actions become intermingled and entangled with the affordances and optimism in the technologies themselves. We can use cell phones as an example; prior to cell phones, we would socialize face-to-face more on a personal level.
Cell phones have come rapidly into our society; therefore, the social rules have changed. We can easily contact each other by simply dialing one’s number, texting or e-mailing at will. I was eating lunch at a restaurant and there were two females friends at a table next to me having lunch and conversing on different topics. One of the women received a phone call on her cell, which I may add had a very loud ringer; had a full conversation that included laughing that lasted roughly fifteen to twenty minutes while her lunch partner waited quietly for her to finish.
Personally, I thought it was extremely rude and felt bad for her friend. If it were a call that needed immediate handling, she could have excused herself, or would ask if the call could be returned at a more convenient time. However, this call sounded like there was no urgency and in that case should not have been. “Mediated interaction via the mobile phone in particular adds new dimensions to ethical considerations. We often need to decide whether it is better to respect the sensibilities of co-present others over our desire to communicate with remote interlocutors when, for example, our phone rings in a restaurant. (Ling & McEwen, 2010) “These decisions are also affected by the relative newness of mobile technologies and a perception that social rules and principles are still being worked out regarding the use of these technologies in various contexts. By understanding the principles governing our application of everyday ethics in these situations (both co-present and mediated) we have the opportunity to see the workings of society: society constituted as both the primary source of our ethical norms and behaviors, and society as reflected in the social contexts in hich these norms and behaviors emerge reflexively through praxis. ” (Ling & McEwen, 2010) There are other moral and ethical issues in regards to wireless technology. In conjunction with our cellphones are the utilization and uprising of applications (apps). The user can use the add-on function or application software that can range anywhere from online banking to games to books to medical advice to add new apps to their cellphone and with these apps may come some moral or ethical dilemmas. Applications are also available in other wireless devices such as the iPad.
These applications can be purchased through providers such as iTunes; you also have the opportunity to install these applications free of charge. For example, on-line banking it is as easy as selecting your bank application and entering your pin; you will have access to all of the banking options your bank has to offer such as deposits and transfers. Applications have made it convenient and easy to access products that people utilize on a daily basis. According to Summer McGee, Center for Practical Bioethics and University of Kansas Medical Center there will soon be an application to “test your saliva for sexually transmitted diseases (STDs).
With one half of new STD infections occurring among 15 to 24 year-olds according to the CDC, this mobile app would seem to be perfect for the generation who seem to have their mobile devices, laptops, and tablets permanently connected to their bodies. ” (McGee, 2011) You start thinking how will this possibly work; physically, medically, and ethically? “The mechanics of the device also is simple: Put a little saliva (or urine) onto a microchip the size of a USB drive and just like a high-tech pregnancy test, the device within minutes will determine whether the tester has come in contact with syphilis, gonorrhea, chlamydia, or herpes.
Plug the device into a phone or computer and the results will be uploaded to the secure website of the testing company and you can receive your results privately—without a doctor’s visit or even having to leave your home. Or that’s the idea, anyway. ” (McGee, 2011) What happens to all of the medical protection laws that are in place and what happens if this private information gets into the wrong hands? We always hear about computer systems being hacked and some one’s personal information or identity being stolen.
The journal mentions that you can receive your results by text or e-mail; sometimes people read other people’s texts or emails accidently or purposely. This information can easily be forwarded to other individuals or posted on social sites, This would be immoral and unethical of one’s action. Privacy breaches can harm not only emotionally but one’s well-being in addition to the disease discovered. We continuously hear the media talk about cyber bullying and suicide being an issue with teen kids; this could be considered an additional burden to society.
Conclusion (Tiemens) Throughout history, there have been certain technologies that have driven society and helped push us to new technological revelations and one of the biggest technologies over the past 100 years has been wireless technology. Wireless technology comes in many forms and used for numerous applications, but its main function is to send and receive information. People have communicated wireless for hundreds of years with such things as smoke signals, the semaphore flag and light signals but until recently, wireless communication was very limiting.
The innovations from such people as Heinrich Hertz, Guglielmo Marconi, and Alexander Popov led to a new form of communication. Just a little over a hundred years ago we had the wireless telegraph, which was groundbreaking for the time, but this invention, has led to the radar, satellites, and cell phones. Technologies must fit within a culture’s values and attitudes (Toscano, 2012) for it to thrive and mobile technology has been widely accepted which has allowed it to prosper.
Wireless technology reached a point early on that because it was getting so widespread that governments from around the world started establishing laws to control it. The main laws regarding this technology consisted of Spectrum Regulation, Industrial and Security Regulation and Radio Frequency Safety Regulations. One universal set of rules seems to be the regulation of the frequency spectrum, which helps reduce interference. Because of this regulation, certain bandwidths can only be used for certain functions, one of which is cellular phones/wireless internet.
With only limited frequency space available some countries have held spectrum auctions, in order to profit as well as build a strong wireless infrastructure. Germany is one such country that has held such an auction with a main goal of providing a strong wireless network to build the economy. A good wireless network will attract business, which therefore will employ more people; boosting the entire economy of a country. Besides helping the economy, wireless is good for employers since it makes employees more productive and can save the company money.
Businesses are not the only ones that benefit from wireless because they are so versatile, but wireless technology may also have a downside. Wireless is so widely accepted and used in today’s society that 8. 6 trillion text message are sent a year and many people would have a difficult time going a day without their smartphone. When people need some tool in order to function and communicate then it is argued that in person communication has died. A lot of psychologists are worried that we are forgetting how to communicate, as well as having a loss of emotion.
Besides the psychological impacts, there are the social impacts such as cyber bullying and criminals using on-line media to stock their victims as well as stealing one’s identity. Wireless technology definitely can have negative effects on people but can also have a negative effect on the environment. It is estimated that most people only use their mobile device for 18 months then get a new one. With as many people that have mobile devices, this makes for many devices that are not being used and possible thrown away, which also includes the batteries.
Many countries are trying to enforce recycling to battle this issue, but it will still be difficult to make everyone compliant. Wireless technology has come a long way in the past century. This technology has allowed people to be able to communicate when there could not be wires, it has helped countries win wars, can help a business grow, it helps doctors see patients in rural areas and allows people to talk to loved ones from practically anywhere in the world. The uses for wireless technology is limitless but only time will tell if this technology is worth all the possible side effects.
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