World Customs Organization Essay Sample
In modern nowadays universe economic system we have unfastened market with free trage. we can see globalisation. internationalisation. integrating between states. These mentioned forses are considered to be more positive than negative. Whenever with international trade here arises differencies between trading states: different criterions. restrictions. demands. nomenclature systems. To do trade easier. awaid or to assist work out struggles arised between member states here come WCO – World Customs Organization. The organization’s activities include work in countries covering the development of planetary criterions. the simplification and harmonisation of Customs processs. trade supply concatenation security. the facilitation of international trade. the sweetening of Customs enforcement and conformity activities. anti-counterfeiting and buccaneering enterprises. public-private partnerships. unity publicity. and sustainable planetary Customs capacity edifice activities. The WCO is the lone international organic structure dedicated entirely to international imposts and surround control affairs. In my work I tried briefy owerview WCO organisation: ends. history. construction. members. working Fieldss. few of import paperss issued by this organisation.
1. Basic information
1. 1. Vision Statement
To be the voice of Customss and the Global Centre of Excellence for the development and bringing of effectual. efficient. and modern Customs processs and criterions. international cooperation. cognition and capacity edifice. to run into the demands of authoritiess and society for a better universe by being airy. relevant and indispensable. 1. 2 Mission Statement
As an intergovernmental organisation. the WCO is the Centre of excellence that provides leading in Customs affairs at the international degree and advises Customs disposals worldwide on direction patterns. tools and techniques to heighten their capacity to implement efficient and effectual cross-border controls along with standardised and consonant processs to ease legitimate trade and travel and to interdict illicit minutess and activities. 1. 3 WCO Goals
Goal 1 – International Co-operation and Information Sharing
The WCO provides a forum for international co-operation to advance greater connectivity and more harmonious interaction. including the exchange of information and experience and the designation of best patterns. between Member disposals. international organisations and other relevant stakeholders. Goal 2 – Harmonization and Simplification of Customs Systems and Procedures The WCO develops. maintains and promotes a series of internationally agreed conventions. other instruments and best-practice attacks to accomplish harmonisation and simplification of Customs systems and processs. Goal 3 – Compliance and Enforcement
The WCO supports Members through activities in the countries of commercial fraud. drug trafficking. money laundering. IPR and other related offenses. through the development of conformity and enforcement tools and intelligence sharing via the Customs Enforcement Network ( CEN ) for the protection of society in the countries of public wellness and safety. environmental offenses. and containment of possible pandemics. Goal 4 – Trade Facilitation
The WCO promotes the Revised Kyoto Convention to help Members on trade facilitation affairs. The WCO will go on to work with other international organisations. including the World Trade Organization to back up its Trade Facilitation Negotiating Group with advice and audiences to further better apprehension of WCO trade facilitation instruments and tools. Goal 5 – Supply Chain Security and Facilitation
The WCO enhances Customs-to-Customs webs and Customs-to-Business partnerships in a meaningful and reciprocally good manner. through continued duologue with its Members and its Business spouses to procure and ease the international trade supply concatenation. including coordinated Border Management in co-operation with other boundary line bureaus. Goal 6 – Capacity Building
The WCO provides a scope of capacity edifice. preparation and proficient aid and unity programmes to increase the capacity of Member Customs disposals to lend efficaciously to national development ends. in partnership with international organisations and the private sector. Goal 7 – Promotion and Marketing
The WCO promotes the strategic involvements and markets the function and part of the WCO and the wider international Customs community. through co-operation. communicating and partnership with authoritiess. other international and regional organisations. giver bureaus and the private sector. Goal 8 – Research and Analysis
The WCO conducts research and analysis into new visions. issues and tendencies of strategic importance to the WCO and Member disposals. in co-operation with research establishments.
Goal 9 – Good Governance and Use of Resources
The WCO manages and administers its homo and fiscal resources in a cost-efficient. transparent and responsible mode. based on a long-run vision for Customs disposals and the WCO and an consciousness of the international environment and drivers. All information above is from WCO web page World Wide Web. wcoomd. org.
The history of the WCO began in 1947 when the 13 European Governments represented in the Committee for European Economic Co-operation agreed to put up a Study Group. This Group examined the possibility of set uping one or more inter-European Customs Unions based on the rules of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade ( GATT ) . In 1948. the Study Group set up two commissions – an Economic Committee and a Customs Committee. The Economic Committee was the predecessor of the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development ( OECD ) . the Customs Committee became the Customs Co-operation Council ( CCC ) ( Government of Chile – National Customs Service. 2013a ) . In 1952. the Convention officially set uping the CCC came into force. The Council is the regulating organic structure of the CCC and the inaugural Session of the Council was held in Brussels on 26 January 1953. Representatives of 17 European states attended the first Council Session of the CCC. After old ages of rank growing. in 1994 the Council adopted the working name World Customs Organization. to more clearly reflect its passage to a genuinely planetary intergovernmental establishment. It is now the voice of 177 Customss disposals which operate on all continents and stand for all phases of economic development. Today. WCO Members are responsible for treating more than 98 % of all international trade ( World Customs Organization. 2012e ) .
3. Structure of the administration
The chief organic structure in the World Customs Organization is Secretariat. It takes highest possition in organisation‘s hierarchy. The WCO Secretariat is headed by a Secretary General. who is elected by the WCO rank to a five twelvemonth term. The current WCO Secretary General is Kunio Mikuriya from Japan. who took office on 1 January 2009. The WCO is governed by the Council. which brings together all Members of the Organization one time a twelvemonth. in a meeting chaired by an elective Chairperson. Additional strategic and direction counsel is provided by the Policy Commission and the Finance Committee. Several WCO commissions. such as the Harmonized System Committee. the Permanent Technical Committee. the Technical Committee on Customs Valuation. Technical Committee on Rules of Origin. the Capacity Building Committee. and the SAFE Working Group. supply a platform for developing instruments and best patterns on imposts competences ( The Free Encyclopedia Wikipedia. 2012 ) . In the undermentioned portion of work here will be shortly described organisation‘s construction boddies and their maps.
The duty of the WCO Secretariat is to supply quality. independent support to WCO member administations on all the activities that are carried out by the Organization. and to function the WCO with professionalism. nonpartisanship. transparence and unity. The WCO Secretariat. located in Brussels. has 151 staff members and is headed by a Secretary General. Its chief responsibilities are to provide proficient. logistical and professional support to the assorted working organic structures established by the Council. to supply capacity edifice and proficient aid and to develop and keep tools and instruments. The Secretariat staff includes persons stand foring over 45 nationalities. most of which are professional Customs officers. There is besides a figure of forces working in support services. such as IT services. finance. human resources and linguistic communication services. The on the job linguistic communications of the WCO are English and French ( World Customs Organization ( 2013c ) . Figure 2: Secretariat construction
Beginning: hypertext transfer protocol: //www. wcoomd. org/en/about-us/wco-secretariat/the-secretariat. aspx
The Council was established by the Convention set uping a Customs Co-operation Council. with the purpose of procuring the highest grade of harmoniousness and uniformity in the Customs systems of Member Governments. and particularly to analyze the jobs built-in in the development and betterment of Customs techniques and Customs statute law in connexion therewith. It is the supreme organic structure of the World Customs Organization and. as such. it takes the concluding determinations sing the Organization’s work and activities. All WCO organic structures study to the Council. The Council operates with administrative support provided by the WCO Secretariat. Policy Comission
The Policy Commission was established to move as a dynamic maneuvering group to the Council. The competency of the Policy Commission is defined as follows in Council Decision No. 284: “The Commission shall concern itself with wide policy inquiries relevant to the WCO’s activities. The Commission shall move as a dynamic Steering Group to the Council. It shall originate surveies on the policies. patterns. and processs of the WCO with the aim of helping the Council to accomplish the wide purposes of its activities” . Finance Committee
The Finance Committee acts under the overall way of the WCO Council with administrative support provided by the WCO Secretariat. Its function and duty is to supply support and advice to the Policy Commission and Council in budgetary and fiscal affairs. A specific duty of the Finance Committee is to analyze the estimations of all of the Organization’s resources and utilizations for the undermentioned fiscal twelvemonth and fix a study to the Council thereon. The estimations shall include an estimated Net income and Loss Account. a statement on hard currency flow and an estimated Balance Sheet. They shall cover all operations envisaged for the fiscal twelvemonth concerned.
The function of the Audit Committee. as portion of the on-going systematic reappraisal of the WCO control environment and administration processs. is to supervise the Audit map and rede the Policy Commission and the Council every bit good as the WCO Secretary General in relation to the operation and the development of this map. The Audit Committee acts under the overall way of the WCO Council with administrative support provided by the WCO Secretariat. The Audit Committee assists the Policy Commission and the Council in carry throughing their inadvertence duty with regard to: overall execution of the WCO Strategic Plan ; budget allotment procedure and public presentation measuring policies and patterns of the Organization ; efficient and effectual programme direction and the attainment of aims. as outlined in the Strategic Plan ; protection of resources and their efficient and effectual application against stated precedences and the designation and extenuation of important hazards ( World Customs Organization ( 2013d ) . The World Customs Organisation to cover with international trade issues has three Fieldss of organic structures: Duty and Trade Affairs. Procedures and Facilitation. Enforcement and Compliance. Each of organic structure in its construction has commissions. working groups. different undertaking groups. they deals with issues. which are attributed their competencies.
Bellow in the tabular array here is full construction of these three mentioned sections. Duty and Trade Affairs| Procedures and Facilitation| Enforcement and Compliance| Harmonized System CommitteeHarmonized System Review Sub-CommitteeHarmonized System Working PartyTechnical Committee on Rules of Origin ( TCRO ) Technical Committee on Customs ValuationFocus Group on Transfer PricingThe Scientific Sub-Committee| Permanent Technical CommitteeInformation Management Sub-CommitteeThe Revised Kyoto Convention Management CommitteeIstanbul Convention Administrative CommitteeContracting Parties to the ATA ConventionAdministrative Committee for the Customs Convention on Containers. 1972UPU/WCO Contact CommitteeSAFE Working GroupAd Hoc Group on Globally Networked Customs ( GNC ) Air Cargo Security ( ACS ) Technical Experts GroupContact Committee for the WCO/IATA/ICAO Guidelines on API| Enforcement CommitteeWorking Group on Commercial FraudGIIS Project GroupCustoms Enforcement Network Management TeamWCO Counterfeiting and Piracy GroupElectronic Crime Expert GroupGlobal RILO Meetings| Table 2: Structure of: Duty and Trade Affairs. Procedures and Facilitation and Enforcement and Compliance sections. Beginning: hypertext transfer protocol: //www. wcoomd. org/en/about-us/wco-working-bodies. aspx
4. WCO members
WCO has 179 Members. three-fourthss of which are developing states. are responsible for pull offing more than 98 % of universe trade. They are divided into 6 parts ( World Customs Organization 2013a ) .
Figure 1: WCO members provinces and regional dividing of them
Beginning: hypertext transfer protocol: //www. wcoomd. org/en/about-us/wco-members/membership. aspx As it was mentioned earlier. in WCO here is six parts to which are divided member provinces: 1 ) North of Africa. Near and Middle East
2 ) West and Central Africa
3 ) East and Southern Africa
4 ) South America. North America. Central America and the Caribbean 5 ) Europe
6 ) Far East. South and South East Asia. Australasia and the Pacific Islands Latest accepted states in few recent old ages are these members: Djibouti 2008-03-19
Bosnia and Herzegovina 2008-07-04
Sao Tome and Principe 2009-09-23
South Sudan 2012-07-18
Poland go a member of World Customs Organization in 1974-07-17 ( World Customs Organization. 2013b ) . World Customs Organization Member Administrations
AFGHANISTAN ( Islamic Republic of ) | Cape Verde| Greece| Ghana| Paraguay| The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia| Albania| Central Africa Republic| Guatemala| Luxembourg| Peru| Timor – Leste| Algeria| Chad| Guinea| Macao. China| Philippines| Trinidad and Tobago| Andorra| Chile| Guinea-Bissau| Madagascar| Poland| Togo| Angola| China| Guyana| Malawi| Portugal| Tonga|
Argentina| Colombia| Haiti| Malaysia| Qatar| Tunisia| Armenia|
Comoros| Hong Kong. China| Maldives| Romania| Turkey| Australia| Congo ( Dem. Rep. of the ) | Hungary| Mali| Russian Federation| Turkmenistan| Austria| Congo ( Rep. of the ) | Iceland| Malta| Rwanda| Uganda| Azerbaijan| Costa Rica| India| Mauritania| Saint Lucia| Ukraine| Bahamas| Cote d’lvoire| Indonesia| Mauritius| Samoa| United Arab Emirates| Bahrain| Croatia| Iran ( Islamic Rep. of| Mexico| Sao Tome And Principe| United Kingdom| Bangladesh| Cuba| Iraq| Moldova| Saudi Arabia| United States| Barbados| Cyprus| Ireland| Mongolia| Senegal| Uruguay| Belarus| Czech Republic| Israel| Montenegro| Serbia| Uzbekistan| Belgium| Denmark| Italy| Morocco| Seychelles| Vanuatu| Belize| Djibouti| Jamaica| Mozambique| Sierra Leone| Venezuela| Benin| Dominican Republic| Japan| Myanmar| Singapore| Vietnam| Bermuda| Ecuador| Jordan| Namibia| Slovakia| Yemen|
Bhutan| Egypt| Kazakhstan| Nepal| Slovenia| Zambia|
Bolivia| Eritrea| Kenya| Netherlands| South Africa| Zimbabwe| Bosnia and Herzegovina | Estonia| Korea ( Rep. of ) | Netherlands Antilles| Spain| | Botswana| Ethiopia| Kuwait| New Zealand| Sri Lanka| | Brazil| Federal Rep. Of Yugoslavia| Kyrgyzstan| Nicaragua| Sudan| | Brunei Darussalam| Fiji| Lao People’s Democratic Republic| Niger| Swaziland| | Bulgaria| Finland| Latvia| Nigeria| Sweden| |
Burkina Faso| France| Lebanon| Norway| Switzerland| | Burundi| Gabon| Lesotho| Oman| Syrian Arab Republic| | Cambodia| Gambia| Liberia| Pakistan| Tajikistan| |
Cameroon| Georgia| Libyan Arab Jamahiriya| Panama| Tanzania| | Canada| Germany| Lithuania| Papua New Guinea| Thailand| | Table 1: WCO members
On 30 June 2007. the Council of the World Customs Organization ( WCO ) decided to accept the petition of the European Community to fall in the WCO as of 1st July 2007. This determination grants to the European Community rights and duties on an interim footing akin to those enjoyed by WCO Members. Full accession is possible one time an amendment to the Convention set uping a Customs Co-operation Council. leting economic and imposts brotherhoods to fall in is ratified by the 172 current Members of the administration. The WCO plays an of import function in advancing international imposts co-operation and turn toing new challenges for imposts and trade. It is profoundly involved in planing and implementing policies worldwide that integrate steps. which help guarantee supply concatenation security. combat forging. advance trade and development. every bit good as warrant efficient aggregation of imposts grosss. Membership of the WCO high spots and confirms the cardinal function and competency of the Community in international treatments on imposts issues including imposts reform. Community engagement in the WCO focuses on the full spectrum of imposts issues. in peculiar the undermentioned wide countries: * Terminology and categorization in the model of the Consonant system ; * Origin of goods ;
* Customs value ;
* Simplification and harmonisation of imposts processs and trade facilitation ; * Development of supply concatenation security criterions ;
* Development of IPR enforcement criterions ;
* Capacity edifice for imposts modernization and reforms. including in the context of development cooperation ; * Mutual Administrative Assistance for the bar. probe and repression of imposts offenses. The European Commission is a undertaking party to several WCO Conventions. and contributes to the work of this administration. including by guaranting presence and coordination with the Member States in specifying and stand foring Community places in the relevant organic structures pull offing these conventions ( European Commission. 2013 ) .
Besides European Union is member of other international administrations. as
EGMONT GROUP| Egmont group|
FATF| Financial Action Task Force|
IFCBA| The International Federation of Customs Brokers Associations| IRU| International Road Transport Union|
OECD| Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development| UNCTAD| United Nations Conference on Trade and Development| UNECE| United Nations Economic Commission for Europe|
WTO| World Trade Organization|
World Customs Organization in its being has issued many paperss refering to 1 ) terminology and categorization of goods. 2 ) rating. 3 ) beginning. 4 ) enforcement and conformity. 5 ) processs and facilitation. 6 ) capacity edifice. 7 ) unity and 8 ) research. In order to accomplish its aims. the WCO has adopted a figure of imposts instruments. including but non limited to the followers: 1 ) The International Convention on the Harmonized Commodity Description and Coding System ( HS Convention ) was adopted in 1983 and came into force in 1988. The HS multipurpose goods terminology is used as the footing for imposts duties and for the digest of international trade statistics. It comprises about 5000 trade good groups. each identified by a six figure codification arranged in a legal and logical construction with chiseled regulations to accomplish unvarying categorization.
The HS is besides used for many other intents affecting trade policy. regulations of beginning. monitoring of controlled goods. internal revenue enhancements. freight duties. conveyance statistics. quota controls. monetary value monitoring. digest of national histories. and economic research and analysis. 2 ) The International Convention on the Simplification and Harmonization of Customs processs ( revised Kyoto Convention or RKC ) was originally adopted in 1974 and was later revised in 1999 ; the revised Kyoto Convention came into force in 2006. The RKC comprises several cardinal regulating rules: transparence and predictability of imposts controls ; standardisation and simplification of the goods declaration and back uping paperss ; simplified processs for authorised individuals ; maximal usage of information engineering ; minimal necessary imposts control to guarantee conformity with ordinances ; usage of hazard direction and audit based controls ; coordinated intercessions with other boundary line bureaus ; and a partnership with the trade. It promotes trade facilitation and effectual controls through its legal commissariats that detail the application of simple yet efficient processs and besides contains new and obligatory regulations for its application.
The WCO revised Kyoto Convention is sometimes confused with the Kyoto Protocol. which is a protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change ( UNFCCC or FCCC ) . 3 ) ATA Convention and the Convention on Temporary Admission ( Istanbul Convention ) . Both the ATA Convention and the Istanbul Convention are WCO instruments regulating impermanent admittance of goods. The ATA system. which is built-in to both Conventions. allows the free motion of goods across frontiers and their impermanent admittance into a imposts district with alleviation from responsibilities and revenue enhancements. The goods are covered by a individual papers known as the ATA carnet that is secured by an international warrant system.
4 ) The Arusha Declaration on Customs Integrity was adopted in 1993 and revised in 2003. The Arusha Declaration is a non-binding instrument which provides a figure of basic rules to advance unity and combat corruptness within imposts disposals. 5 ) The SAFE Framework of Standards to Secure and Facilitate Global Trade was adopted in 2005. The SAFE Framework is a non-binding instrument that contains supply concatenation security and facilitation criterions for goods being traded internationally. enables integrated supply concatenation direction for all manners of conveyance. strengthens networking agreements between imposts disposals to better their capableness to observe bad cargos. promotes cooperation between imposts and the concern community through the Authorized Economic Operator ( AEO ) construct. and champions the seamless motion of goods through secure international trade supply ironss ( The Free Encyclopedia Wikipedia. 2012 and World Customs Organization: //www. wcoomd. org ) .
The World Customs Organization ( WCO ) . established in 1952 as the Customs Co-operation Council ( CCC ) is an independent intergovernmental organic structure whose mission is to heighten the effectivity and efficiency of Customs disposals. Today. the WCO represents 179 Customss disposals across the Earth that jointly process about 98 % of universe trade. As the planetary Centre of Customs expertness. the WCO is the lone international organisation with competency in Customs affairs and can rightly name itself the voice of the international Customs community. The WCO’s regulating organic structure – the Council – relies on the competency and accomplishments of a Secretariat and a scope of proficient and consultative commissions to carry through its mission. As a forum for duologue and exchange of experiences between national Customs delegates. the WCO offers its Members a scope of Conventions and other international instruments. every bit good as proficient aid and preparation services provided either straight by the Secretariat. or with its engagement.
The Secretariat besides actively supports its Members in their enterprises to overhaul and construct capacity within their national Customs disposals. Besides the critical function played by the WCO in exciting the growing of legitimate international trade. its attempts to battle deceitful activities are besides recognized internationally. The partnership attack championed by the WCO is one of the keys to constructing Bridgess between Customs disposals and their spouses. By advancing the outgrowth of an honest. transparent and predictable Customs environment. the WCO straight contributes to the economic and societal wellbeing of its Members. Finally. in an international environment characterized by instability and the ever-present menace of terrorist activity. the WCO’s mission to heighten the protection of society and the national district. and to procure and ease international trade. takes on its full significance.
Enclycopedija Britannica ( 2013 ) . “World Customs Organization ( WCO ) ” Retrieved from: hypertext transfer protocol: //www. britannica. com/EBchecked/topic/1134726/World-Customs-Organization-WCO European Commission ( 2013 ) . “Taxation and Customs Union: World Customs Organization” Retrieved from hypertext transfer protocol: //ec. Europa. eu/taxation_customs/common/international_affairs/wco/index_en. htm Government of Chile – National Customs Service ( 2013a ) . “Mission and history of the WCO” Retrieved from: hypertext transfer protocol: //www. aduana. cl/prontus_aduana_eng/site/artic/20070227/pags/20070227231225. html International Association of Conference Interpreters ( 2013 ) . “WCO – World Customs Organization” Retrieved from hypertext transfer protocol: //aiic. net/page/6294
U. S. Customs and Border Protection ( 2013 ) “World Customs Organization Overview” Retrieved from: