World History Study Guide
Raw materials(metals, vegetable oils, dyes, cotton, and hemp—needed to feed the machines of Europe, not spices or manufactured goods, were the main products the Europeans wanted. | What fueled European imperialist expansion in the Industrial Age? | From internal rivalries between the European powers themselves. | What was the chief interest of the Dutch and English East India Companies?
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How did the communication impact the trading companies? The Commanders in the field could no longer act on their own decisions because now the owners of the trading companies could now give orders and control their companies from a farther distance, as opposed to before where it would take months to send an order to the colonies. | What Country controlled Java? | Dutch| During the 18th century, how many wars did the British and the French find themselves on opposite sides? | Five major wars| What tactic did Robert Clive use in his impressive victory over the ruler Nawab Siraj-us-duala in the Battle of Plassey? (List three tactics)| 1.
Hired spies to give him detailed accounts of Nawab’s army with money he got from Hindu Bankers. 2. Clive bought off the Nawab’s chief general and several of his key allies. 3. Paid his soldiers well while Nawab did not. 4. Nawab’ Indian allies defected and Clive had superior artillery. | Why was the battle of Plassey so significant to the British? | The British gained control of the sizeable Bengal-Bihar region which established the foundations of Britain’s Indian and global empire. | Like the Dutch, how did the British often gain control of the Indian kingdom?
The British often became involved in succession disputes and ended up controlling the kingdoms being contested. The British were easily able to conquer the warring states of what used to be the Mughal Empire. | Why were Indian ports essential to the British? | They were essential to British sea power east of the Cape of Good Hope; India became the major outlet for British overseas investments and manufactured goods as well as a major source of key raw materials. | How did the tropical environments influence the Dutch and the English? They had to adapt the ancient and sophisticated host cultures of south and southeast Asia. This is because their canal cities were breeding grounds for insects and microbes that carried diseases. | How did Lord Cornwallis check corruption in India? Who did he mistrust? | He cleaned up the courts and reduced the power of local British administrators to check corruption.
He mistrusted the Indians; this caused him to limit their role in governing the empire. | What did the Evangelicals and the Utilitarians try to reform in India and how? To put an end to the slave trade; to eradicate Indian social abuses to their campaigns for human improvement. They did so by pushing British institutions and ways of thinking in India as well as the eradication of what they considered Indian superstitions and social abuse. | What Indian practice became a major confrontation between the Indians and British? | Sati, the ritualistic burning of Hindu widows on the funeral pyres of their deceased husbands. | What gave Europeans power over the rest of the world?