Worlds Together Worlds Apart Chapter 5 Outline
In Eastern Zhou China, large territorial states and had formulas for ordering human behavior In Greece and the Levant, dynamic city-states and new ideas about good governance East and South Asia, Caribbean coast of Mexico, coasts of Mediterranean have sacred categories and religious experiences Second generation societies- building on predecessors and representing departure from ancient civilization Thinkers in Greece and Ganges river valley question society values and beliefs Eastern Zhou China
Political degeneration leads to political and intellectual innovation Emergence of Eastern Zhou dynasty = Spring and Autumn period; ends with Warring states period 1. The Spring and Autumn Period Regional states have power over Zhou central government Purified iron emerges and spreads cheap power to local authorities Lord of the Wu state begins the Grand Canal connecting Yellow with Yangzi 2.
Worlds Together Worlds Apart Chapter 5 Outline Essay Example
The Warring States Period Wars and shifting political alliances involved unprecedented scale of military mobilization and resources Qin state replaced Zhou in 221 BCE (terracotta warriors buried with first emperor) Reformed coalitions to maintain balance of power; impersonal legal codes enhanced these (punishment based on crime) 3. New Ideas and the “Hundred Masters” Confucius was most prominent teacher; others either expanded on his ideas or opposed them (Hundred Schools of Thought) A. Confucius (551 – 479 BCE)
The Analects- teachings of Confucius according to his followers; had extraordinary influence Moral framework stressed correct performance of ritual, family responsibility, and perfection of moral character (to become a “superior man”) Classified people by education more than birth B. Mo Di Mohism- each man obligated to all others; promoted social order, material benefits for all, population growth Opposed conquest as it is waste of resources but recognized need for defense from marauders “Axial age” 2nd Gen societies Grand Canal Qin Confucius Mozi (Mohism) C.
Laozi and Zhuangzi Daoism- scorned rituals and social hierarchy; best way to live was to follow natural order (dao- the Way) Ruler is to interfere as little as possible with the natural processes of change Wuwei- “doing nothing”, how one should rule D. Xunzi and Han Fei Legalism or Statism- men and women were innately bad; required moral education and authoritarian control Ruler should have harsh, unbending laws 4. Scholars and the State Scholars served rulers to make better state Qin state achieved order through Legal approach but borrowed from other philosophies 5.
Innovations in State Administration Officials drawn from shi (previously knights, now bureaucrats); called gentlemen or superior men Shang Yang- reformed Qin domain by dividing into administrative districts and appointing people to take care of each Harsh penal code stressed collective responsibilities 6. Innovations in Warfare Registered rural population for military recruitment Massive infantries of peasants using iron laces fought to the death; increasingly sophisticated warfare Siege warfare- elite troops used iron armor and crossbows, siege ladders used to scale urban walls 7.
Economic, Social, and Cultural Changes Environmental problems- deforestation, erosion of fields, extinction of animals; many migrated south Large population put stress of food sources; standard of living began to lower for commoners; many migrated Crop rotation and iron plows increased productivity; in the short term, food surplus New economic method- peasants had right to land in exchange for taxes and military service Gender relations- sexes become more separated and behavior constrained by moral and legal sanctions; women limited The New Worlds of South Asia
Violence and warfare provided setting for vibrant culture and intellectual insight 1. The Rise of New Polities Vedic people moved into Ganges plain, a monsoon region 1000-600 BCE small territorial states constantly feuding Some states had hereditary monarchy; others had oligarchies (clique of privileged rulers) 2. Expansion of the Caste System Economy centered on farming by extended families; Water buffalo and complex irrigation required Labor specialization created a more complex caste system Became harder and harder to move up ranks in system Daoism Wuwei Legalism shi Shang Yang
Siege warfare Oligarchies 3. New Cities and an Expanding Economy Shravasti and Rajagriha thrived as artisanal centers; Taxila traded with Afghanistan and Iran A. Life in the New Cities Development haphazard, but civic authorities emphasized sanitation Raw goods imported into cities and manufactured goods exported to villages Economic guilds regulated competition, prices, wages; prevented monopolization Bankers and traders created coins of standardized weight B. Unequal Opportunities Urban life was far more uncertain; it included a new social class, the “untouchables” that did the dirty work 4.
Brahmans, Their Challengers, and New Beliefs In cities, castes were intermingling and writing gave knowledge to the more lowly peoples New Brahman historical accounts claimed royal power had divine origin and priests were necessary People began to resent Brahmans and challenged their right for the top of the system A. Dissident Thinkers Refused to recognize Vedic gods; had practical, material beliefs Buddha and Mahavira came from middle Ganges where Brahman caste was nonexistent (recorded in Upanishads) B.
Mahavira and Jainism Vardhamana Mahivira- spent years as ascetic (one who rejects material possessions and pleasures) Jainism- Universe obeys its own rules and is unaffected by supernatural; purpose of life to purify soul (by being ascetic) and attain permanent bliss Doctrine of ahimsa (“no hurt”) limited religion to city dwellers C. Buddha and Buddhism Siddhartha Gautama- Buddha or Enlightened One; denied Brahmanic ritual, sacrifice, and cosmology (understanding the order of the universe).
Four Truths- life is full of suffering all sufferings are caused by desire only way to rise above suffering is to renounce desire only by following Noble Eightfold Path can individuals rid themselves of desire and reach nirvana This system gives hope that one can reach eternal happiness in this life Delivered ideas in vernacular Sanskrit; follower called sanghu (gathering) Karma determines the suffering and happiness of the next life Sided with the oligarchs; biggest followers were urban merchants Though none of the systems extinguished the caste system, they provided a new option to carry out activities of daily life Untouchables Jainism ahisma Siddhartha Cosmology Four Truths Nirvana Sanghu Common Cultures in the Americas Most information we have is from archeological remains.
The Chavin in the Andes Common belief system around 1400 BCE United more by culture and faith than any political structure Made elaborate stone carvings, cotton textiles, and metal goods by 900 BCE Trade and travel were limited by geography, lack of horses, and lack of central organization Chavin de Huantar- central temple complex; priests communicated with the supernatural through drugs Cults revered powerful wild animals (jaguars, serpents); “Smiling God” worshipped up to 400 BCE 2.
The Olmecs in Mesoamerica Emerged around 1500 BCE; first generation society that contemplated profound questions Olmecs- “inhabitants in the land of rubber”; a unified culture of decentralized villages Cities as Sacred Centers Cities were devotional centers that spread architecture and art Shamans- certain humans that could transform into beasts and commune with the supernatural Olmec Art as Ideology Craftsmen made portable objects and miniature figures that could help spread and unify belief system “Young Lord”- diplomatic artifact, conveys power and influence, shows shamanic characteristics and represents the three realms: supernatural, terrestrial, and the underworld Cities as Athletic Hubs Ball courts had room for fans; ritual ball games were integral in devotional culture Human sacrifice possibly linked to outcome of ball games Man, Nature, and Time
Priests charted celestial movements, devised complex calendars, and other aspects of nature to learn about gods A World of Social Distinctions Tiers of social ranking- priests, chieftains, wealthy ruling families, merchants, everyone else The Loss of Centers Breakdown of culture mysterious and abrupt Many hubs were abandoned not destroyed; hinterlands remained highly productive Probably the belief system and ruler-subject bonds fell apart and the hierarchies collapsed Common Cultures in Sub-Saharan Africa
As the Sahara became even larger, certain places became hubs for population, especially the Nile Valley 1. The Four Zones 1. Sahara- oases supported pastoral people 2. Sahel- south of Sahara; no large cities until first millennium BCE (Timbuktu) Chavin Olmecs Shamans 3. Sudanic savanna- high grasslands; free from the lethal tsetse fly; grew millet and sorghum 4. Western and central African rainforests- small-scale societies; grew yams and root crops Labor valued over land ownership.
Between Sudanic Africa and Pharaonic Egypt Kush- first important Nubian state; flourished 1700-1500 BCE; capital was Kerma Egypt’s source of ivory, gold, and slaves Meroe kingdom- 400-300 BCE; adapted many Egyptian traditions; struggled to keep identity from Egypt 3. West African Kingdoms Trading centers in Senegal River basin and among Mande people around Niger river Nok culture- at Tarunga, early iron smelting occurred in 600 BCE; bypassed stone and copper Nok famous for terra-cotta figurines that bear resemblance to modern inhabitants; were cult altarpieces Warring Ideas in the Mediterranean World.
Many changes resulted in new thinking and creation of new political and economic institutions 1. New Thinking and New Societies at the Margins Seaborne peoples- Phoenicians, Greeks, Cretans, Cypriots, Lydians, Etruscans Had ideas about virtues of self-sufficient cities with more widely shared power; ideas of money and alphabet spread rapidly 2. A New World of City-States New creation- city-states were governed by their citizens Self-Government and Democracy First found in Carthage but associated with Greeks
Different methods- popularly approved politician ruled (tyrannis) small number of powerful citizens ruled (oligoi) all free adult males involved (demokratia) Families as Foundational Units Aristotle- the household embodied the power relationships found in cities Women were supposed to stay within private world of family; those that went out were deemed immoral Competition and Armed War City states were freewheeling and competitive places Organized sporting events became very popular.
Constant warfare inspired innovation like phalanx (formation of troops) Peloponnesian War- conflict between Athens and Sparta; recorded by Thucydides War reduced resources of all city-states and destroyed basic humanity of citizens 3. Economic Innovations and Population Movement Alphabet, coins, and central marketplace brought about trade and wealth Kush Menroe Nok Democracy Greek Women Peloponnesian war Free Markets and Money-Based Economies By end of fifth century BCE, Greeks issued variety of coins, as did Phoenicians, Etruscans, and Persians Agora- central open marketplace.
Trade and Colonization Eastern Mediterranean groups created city-states in west Mediterranean and the Black Sea Culture developed rapidly as trade spread ideas all over Mediterranean coastal communities Chattel Slavery Chattel slavery- treating men, women, and children as objects of commerce Very profitable trade as it allowed for cheap manual and technical labor Encounters with Frontier Communities Tribes of the north were attracted to manufactured goods and preferred obtaining by force than trade Called barbarians but not radically different from original Greeks and Phoenicians 4.
New Ideas Ideas were free to arise, circulate, and clash; no final authority to approve and force acceptance of one argument Naturalistic Science and Realistic Art Artists portrayed things as they appeared to the human eye The unadorned human figure became centerpiece of Greek art New Thinking and Greek Philosophers Miletus and Ephesus did not accept traditional explanations for the universe Believed in four basic elements- earth, fire, air, water
Democritus suggested atoms, Pythagorean studied numbers, Xenophanes doubted existence of gods Philosophia- “love of wisdom”- debated over nature of cosmos, humans place in society, and the ideal state Socrates- stressed honor and integrity Plato- presented Socrates ideas, envisioned philosopher-king ruler; believed everything reflection of the “real” thing Aristotle- studying the facts helps achieve better understanding Conclusion Influential thinkers came to the fore with radically new perspectives New ideas had continuing impacts of societies that followed Agora Chattel slavery Barbarians Philosophy.